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World War II

World War II was a major conflict and total war fought on Earth in the 20th century. The war began in Europe in September 1939 after a breakdown of the peace settlement implemented after World War I. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991)., AUDIO: Neverland [+]Alan Barnes, Main Range (Big Finish Productions, 2002)., et al.) Fighting also broke out earlier in Far East Asia in July 1937, following a period of unrest which began in 1911 and escalated in 1931. (PROSE: The Shadow of Weng-Chiang [+]David A. McIntee, Virgin Missing Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996)., Log 384 [+]Richard Salter, Short Trips: The Centenarian (Short Trips short stories, 2006).) Worldwide hostilities formally ended in September 1945. (COMIC: Sky Jacks [+]Andy Diggle and Eddie Robson, Doctor Who (2012) (IDW Publishing, 2013)., PROSE: Base of Operations [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Apart from a handful of neutral countries, it involved the whole of the Earth.

The name of the war was sometimes written as World War Two, (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991)., Harry Sullivan's War [+]Ian Marter, The Companions of Doctor Who (Target Books, 1986)., Meet Rose [+]Russell T Davies, Doctor Who Annual 2006 (Panini UK, 2005).) World War 2 (PROSE: Filthy Lucre [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW., COMIC: Evening's Empire [+]Andrew Cartmel, DWM Comics (Marvel Comics, 1991).) or shortened to WWII (PROSE: Nightshade [+]Mark Gatiss, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1992)., Eternity is Just for Starters [+]Susannah Tiller, More Tales of the City (The City of the Saved, Obverse Books, 2013)., Unexploded WWII Bomb Warnings [+]BBC webteam, U.N.I.T. (BBC, 2005).) and WW2. (PROSE: Warlock [+]Andrew Cartmel, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1995)., This Town Will Never Let Us Go [+]Lawrence Miles, Faction Paradox (Mad Norwegian Press, 2003).) It was also known as the Second World War, Earth War Two, (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) the Patriotic War, (PROSE: Oblivion [+]Dave Stone, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1998).) the Hitler war in Europe, (TV: The Time Monster [+]Robert Sloman, Doctor Who season 9 (BBC1, 1972).) the Second Sino-Japanese War in China and the Pacific War in the wider Far East. (COMIC: 4-Dimensional Vistas [+]Steve Parkhouse, DWM Comics (Marvel Comics, 1983).) Other notable theatres included the Western Front, (PROSE: Warlock [+]Andrew Cartmel, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1995).) the Eastern Front, (PROSE: The Shadow in the Glass [+]Justin Richards and Stephen Cole, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2001).) the North Africa Campaign, (COMIC: The Instruments of War [+]Mike Collins, DWM Comics (Panini Comics, 2014-2015).) the Italian theatre (COMIC: Treasure Trail [+]John Canning, TVC comic stories (1976)., PROSE: Deadly Reunion [+]Terrance Dicks and Barry Letts, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2003)., The Turing Test [+]Paul Leonard, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).) the Far East Campaign (AUDIO: The Forsaken [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) and the South Pacific Campaign. (PROSE: Fugitives from Chance [+]Doctor Who Annual 1975 (Doctor Who annual, 1974).)

The Doctor stopped several groups from interfering with the war as Earth was distracted by its own chaos, including the Timewyrm, the War Lords, (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) the Players, (PROSE: Players [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999)., World Game [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2005).), the Cybermen, (PROSE: Illegal Alien [+]Mike Tucker and Robert Perry, adapted from Illegal Alien, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1997).) the Daleks, (TV: Victory of the Daleks [+]Mark Gatiss, Doctor Who series 5 (BBC One, 2010).) the Heliyon, (AUDIO: Their Finest Hour [+]John Dorney, Ravenous 1 (The Eighth Doctor Adventures: Ravenous, Big Finish Productions, 2018).) the Silurians, (COMIC: As Time Goes By [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) the Rutans (COMIC: The Instruments of War [+]Mike Collins, DWM Comics (Panini Comics, 2014-2015).) and the Valbrects. (PROSE: Base of Operations [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Eileen Younghusband also defended Earth from alien attacks during the conflict. (PROSE: The Last Duty [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Several hostile extraterrestrial forces recognised the war as the point in Earth's history where humanity invented destructive technologies theoretically capable of causing its own extinction. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991)., Deadly Reunion [+]Terrance Dicks and Barry Letts, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2003)., Endgame [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000). AUDIO: Storm of the Horofax [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW., Entanglement [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW., Human Conflict [+]Iain McLaughlin, The Churchill Years: Volume Two (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2018).)

World War II was considered by the First Doctor to be an even darker period of human history than the Napoleonic Wars and World War I. (AUDIO: Entanglement [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Tens of millions of lives were lost. In the words of the Seventh Doctor, the war was comprised of many terrible events that could be considered "crimes against the universe itself." Auschwitz, Pearl Harbor, Stalingrad, Dresden, Coventry, Hiroshima and Kwai were all locations which witnessed dreadful suffering during the course of the conflict, with further scars left by the Holocaust. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

History[]

Napoleonic precedent[]

Main article: Napoleonic Wars

At the end of the 18th century, the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte during French Revolution, (TV: The Reign of Terror [+]Dennis Spooner, Doctor Who season 1 (BBC1, 1964).) which sparked fierce wars in France, (AUDIO: Fields of Terror [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) spread hostilities to the rest of Europe. The Napoleonic Wars saw numerous military parallels with the later Second World War. In 1805, Admiral Horatio Nelson led the Royal Navy to victory at the Battle of Trafalgar, causing Napoleon to shelve cross-Channel plans to invade England and he instead sent the armies of France east into Russia. After a disastrous winter campaign, Napoleon was hurled back to the west. Also weakened by the concurrent Peninsular War in Spain and Portugal, Napoleon was surrounded by a two-front war and ultimately defeated by a grand coalition of nations at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. His failure to defeat the United Kingdom, in the long term, led to his downfall. (PROSE: World Game [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2005).)

Darker ideological parallels also bubbled beneath the surface. In an alternate timeline in which Napoleon won the Battle of Waterloo, in the Players' Game of Napoleon and Wellington, the French Emperor conquered much of Europe and his empire became a dictatorial regime. The Second Doctor, upon arriving in this timeline, identified the presence of "Fascism, repression, state terror" of the kind known to the 20th century in Adolf Hitler's Germany, Joseph Stalin's Russia and Mao Tse-Tung's China. A victorious Napoleon, he noted, "seem[ed] to have invented it early." The Doctor and Serena restored the original timeline and Napoleon's proto-fascist regime never came to be, (PROSE: World Game [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2005).) but the Doctor continued to draw comparisons between Napoleon and Hitler into his next incarnation. (PROSE: Galactic Gangster [+]Doctor Who Annual 1974 (Doctor Who annual, 1973)., Soldiers from Zolta [+]Doctor Who Annual 1971 (Doctor Who annual, 1970).)

Foreseeing[]

In 17th century isolationist Japan, Asami of Clan Rikushira read Izzy Sinclair's mind using "Gaijin" technology to learn the future of her nation. Izzy's memories revealed that Japan would fight in the Pacific War where Hiroshima would be destroyed and Japan defeated. The revelation drove Asami insane and she vowed to wipe out the Western nations and change Japan's future before the Eighth Doctor convinced the Gaijin to stop her. (COMIC: The Road to Hell [+]Scott Gray, DWM Comics (Panini Comics, 1999).)

Ada Lovelace was temporally displaced from 1834 to 1943, where she was witness to the war-torn Paris, as well as learning from Noor Inayat Khan that the current war came following one of a similar scale. The Thirteenth Doctor noted that these were "dark times", but that they would not sustain. Ultimately, the Doctor removed Ada's memory of this experience as she returned her home to 1834. (TV: Spyfall [+]Chris Chibnall, Doctor Who series 12 (BBC One, 2020).)

In 1899, Winston Churchill was captured during the Boer War while working for the Daily Mail as a war correspondent in South Africa. He anonymously received a package full of supplies to help him escape which he believed came from the British government. The Sixth Doctor thought it was part of a trap given Churchill's somewhat lowly position, assuring him: "The day may come when the British Government will be ready to expend effort to save your skin – but not yet..." (PROSE: Players [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).)

In 1903, after receiving a wealth of information from the future, Grigori Rasputin foresaw, among other things, the Second World War, Adolf Hitler and the Nazis. (AUDIO: The Wanderer [+]Richard Dinnick, The Companion Chronicles (Big Finish Productions, 2012).)

In February 1906, the launch of the Dreadnought by the Royal Navy sparked an arms race between the United Kingdom and Imperial Germany. Time travelling aliens recognised that the arms race would set in motion technological advances which eventually resulted in the creation of the atomic bomb and the Cold War. (AUDIO: Peace in Our Time [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.)

Captain Archibald Hamish Lethbridge-Stewart encountered the First and Twelfth Doctors after he was displaced in time while fighting at Ypres in December 1914. The Twelfth Doctor accidentally referred to the conflict as "World War One", leaving the Captain contemplating the upsetting implication that there would eventually be another. (TV: Twice Upon a Time [+]Steven Moffat, Doctor Who Christmas Special 2017 (BBC One, 2017).)

On 18 November 1915, Churchill arrived in France for military duty on the Western Front, where the Count and Countess of the Players attempted to send him to Germany as a political prisoner. The Second Doctor let himself be captured by the Players to allow Churchill to escape in their plane. The Doctor's parting warning stuck with Churchill: "Your country needs you, now and in years to come!" (PROSE: Players [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).) Had the Players succeeded in disgracing or killing Churchill in their Game of Hitler and Churchill, Britain would be left open to German invasion in 1940. (PROSE: World Game [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2005).)

Origins[]

World War I and the Treaty of Versailles[]

Main article: World War I
Main article: Treaty of Versailles
Main article: Between the wars
WorldWarI

One of the battlefields of World War I, a cataclysmic conflict which ultimately saw many of its wounds reopened. (COMIC: The Weeping Angels of Mons [+]Robbie Morrison, Doctor Who: The Tenth Doctor (Titan Comics, 2014-2015).)

Between 1914 and 1918, World War I was fought on Earth. Although global in scale, the war was primarily a European matter which saw the United Kingdom, France and Russia of the Allies fight against Germany and Austria-Hungary of the Central Powers. (TV: The War Games [+]Terrance Dicks and Malcolm Hulke, Doctor Who season 6 (BBC1, 1969)., PROSE: Human Nature [+]Paul Cornell, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1995)., et al.) While Britain and France emerged victorious, Russia became engulfed by revolution in 1917 which toppled the old Tsarist regime and gave rise to the Communist dictatorship of the Soviet Union. (PROSE: The Wages of Sin [+]David A. McIntee, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999)., AUDIO: The Memory Cheats [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW., et al.) Germany and her allies were defeated and the end of the war was marked by Armistice Day on 11 November 1918. (AUDIO: The White Room [+]Alan Barnes, Dark Eyes 2 (The Eighth Doctor Adventures: Dark Eyes, Big Finish Productions, 2014).)

These powers, together with many other countries, would find themselves engaged in another war two decades later, the roots of which could be traced back to the Treaty of Versailles. The treaty, which formally brought World War I to an end, was signed in 1919 at the peace conference at Versailles. George Limb was among the attendees. Chief Inspector Patrick Mullen and the Seventh Doctor later suspected that Limb may have had a hand in sabotaging the treaty in some way, sowing the seeds for another conflict. (PROSE: Illegal Alien [+]Mike Tucker and Robert Perry, adapted from Illegal Alien, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1997).) Under the terms of the treaty, Germany lost her empire, her colonies and much of her European territory, resulting in the emergence of newly independent countries like Poland, and was made to accept responsibility for the war. Nazi Colonel Oskar Steinmann later denounced the treaty as a "draconian" measure intended to punish Germany. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996)., AUDIO: Just War [+]Jacqueline Rayner, adapted from Just War (Lance Parkin), Bernice Summerfield: Single Releases (Big Finish Productions, 1999).)

The Allies set war reparations that, in the eyes of many Germans, were obviously meant to be too high for Germany to be able to pay off, crippling her economically and preventing recovery. Kaiser Wilhelm II was deposed, although buildings and organisations such as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute retained his name. (AUDIO: The Alchemists [+]Ian Potter, The Companion Chronicles (Big Finish Productions, 2013).) Germany became a republic, known as the Weimar Republic. (PROSE: Almost Perfect [+]James Goss, BBC Torchwood novels (BBC Books, 2008).) Aware that the Germans viewed the treaty as unfair, British agent Graham Greene proposed that he become an agent for German interests, but beyond one trip to the Rhineland, nothing came of this idea. (PROSE: The Turing Test [+]Paul Leonard, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).)

Europe and the rise of fascism[]

The Weimar Republic[]
Main article: Weimar Republic

British society experienced "upheaval and change" after 1918. The coal, textile and ship-building industries went into decline, while electricity rose to replace steam power. Women were granted the right to vote and new cultural activities came onto the scene with the rise of jazz, films and the wireless. Although much of the period between 1918 and 1939 was remembered for the General Strike, the Wall Street Crash and the Great Depression, the Twelfth Doctor noted more positive aspects. More people enjoyed a greater quality of life than did their forebears. (PROSE: A History of Humankind [+]Official Guides (BBC Children's Books, 2016).)

Britain's period of optimism was not reflected in Weimar Germany, whose interwar period was a grim one. Her old foe Russia, now under Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks, continued to establish the new Communist power in the east which posed a threat to Germany. (PROSE: The Wages of Sin [+]David A. McIntee, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).) This threat was demonstrated in 1919 when the Spartacist movement, (PROSE: Warlords of Utopia [+]Lance Parkin, Faction Paradox novels (Mad Norwegian Press, 2004).) influenced by the the Soviets, attempted to spark a communist revolution in Germany, at a time when the Versailles reparations had stifled the nation's economic growth and her ability to recover from the war. (AUDIO: The Alchemists [+]Ian Potter, The Companion Chronicles (Big Finish Productions, 2013).)

Several political groups emerged in Germany out of the chaos which resulted from defeat, most of which were minor and quickly faded into obscurity. However, one party would grow to significance. This was the National Socialist German Workers Party – in German, the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) or NSDAP. (AUDIO: The Alchemists [+]Ian Potter, The Companion Chronicles (Big Finish Productions, 2013).) Founded in 1919 by Anton Drexler and Dietrich Erhart, the party selected a number of populist policies as its ideological stance, including a mix of nationalism, socialism and anti-Semitism. In the early 1920s, the NSDAP regularly met in beer halls around Munich, which normally ended in street fighting against Communists. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) The party adopted the ideology of fascism, to be enforced by a ruthless military dictatorship which suppressed weakness and emphasised the importance of the fatherland. In particular, followers of fascism fought against communist agitators calling for a workers' uprising or "class war". (PROSE: Warlords of Utopia [+]Lance Parkin, Faction Paradox novels (Mad Norwegian Press, 2004).)

Among the membership of the National Socialist Party was a young Adolf Hitler. Hitler had dabbled in a career in art but he had failed in this endeavour and much more besides. He fought in World War I and, like many Germans, felt shamed by Germany's defeat. He grew up bitter, neurotic, resentful and hateful. Yet much of the NSDAP's success in the early 1920s was down to him and his speeches. Hitler was gifted with energy, passion, a strong will, a powerful mind, and an ability to move vast swathes of the population with his natural affinity as an orator. The Timewyrm recognised Hitler's potential and in his earlier years, she implanted herself inside his mind to control him as a vessel who could lead the world to destruction. Once inside, she found herself trapped and unable to fully exert her influence, although her presence did amplify Hitler's natural skills, making him even more charismatic and able to more strongly connect with even more of the German people. Hitler also attracted the attention of the War Lords and the renegade Time Lord known as the War Chief. Having failed to raise an advanced army of universal conquest through their War Games, the War Lords saw the opportunity to realise this by becoming the puppet masters of a world united by a triumphant Adolf Hitler instead. To this end, the War Lords observed Hitler's early political career and assisted and influenced events as required.

Germany's post-war situation failed to improve and in response, a significant political disturbance actively manifested itself on 9 November 1923. Hitler and Hermann Goering led a coup against the Weimar government at the German War Office in Munich, which became known as the Beer Hall Putsch. The NSDAP supporters rallied around WWI hero, General Erich Ludendorf, who acted as a figurehead but was becoming senile and ultimately had little idea what was really going on. Hitler roused the crowd with a speech denouncing Jews and the Treaty of Versailles. At the conclusion of the speech, the procession marched towards the War Ministry. They encountered armed police on the Odeonplatz who, although armed, were reluctant to fire in case they hit Ludendorf. As the crowd drew nearer, the police fired into the ground at their feet, showering them with chips of granite and ricocheting bullets. The procession scattered in a riotous attempt to escape. Goering was hit in the stomach by a shard of granite and staggered away. Hitler fell, dislocating his shoulder, and was trampled by the frenzied crowd.

The Seventh Doctor, seeking to preserve Earth's timeline to prevent an alternative future, witnessed the Putsch and helped Hitler back onto his feet after the crowds fled. Shamed, Hitler contemplated suicide but the Doctor convinced him to keep trying, and one day he would lead Germany. The Doctor's companion Ace had been disgusted by one of Hitler's speeches and tried to assassinate him with nitro-9a but the Doctor admonished her actions. He described Hitler as an "incompetent madman" who ruled Germany for twelve years, which was at least better than killing him and running the risk of a competent madman taking his place and ruling a dictatorship for that lasted closer to a thousand.

The NSDAP was banned from participating in future elections and it seemed to contemporary observers that the party was on its way back to the fringes. One such observer, Professor Karl Muller, wrote in his 1927 book Ballots, Blood and Bullets – Political Chaos in Post-War Germany that the failure of the Putsch ruined the party's last hopes of greater political success. Although the party eventually returned, it endured a decade of "dirty politics". Hitler was found by the authorities shortly after the Putsch and arrested on charges of treason. He was sentenced to five years in prison. However, his sentence seemed to enhance rather than hinder his political career. In the end, he was released after only six months and spent most of them as a VIP prisoner. Writing Mein Kampf during his sentence, he was eventually pardoned and returned to the streets as a hero. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).)

Despite the failure of the Putsch, the incident brought Hitler to the attention of George Limb, who felt he had potential and was someone the British government ought to take seriously. (PROSE: Illegal Alien [+]Mike Tucker and Robert Perry, adapted from Illegal Alien, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1997).) Hitler infectious charisma helped him rise to power in later years. This was also the case for Benito Mussolini, (PROSE: Warchild [+]Andrew Cartmel, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) who rose to prominence in the same period and established a fascist dictatorship in Italy. (AUDIO: The Rapture [+]Joseph Lidster, Main Range (Big Finish Productions, 2002).) Mussolini looked back to Rome's proud and ancient imperial history and resolved to create a new empire for Italy. (PROSE: Warlords of Utopia [+]Lance Parkin, Faction Paradox novels (Mad Norwegian Press, 2004).)

Anglo-German relations remained uneasy following the Great War. In the early 1920s, the Third Doctor quickly sought to gain the trust of the staff at Denby prep school to fend off an attack by extraterrestrial shape-shifters. When his story only caused confusion, he made up a more-believable cover story about a German revenge plot to invade Britain using new flying machines, for which he, a member of His Majesty's Secret Service, had stolen the plans. (PROSE: Dream Devils [+]Glen McCoy, Short Trips: The Centenarian (Short Trips short stories, 2006).) By August 1928, British Great War veteran Oliver Marks had heard rumours about a new movement in Germany formulating a further atrocity by planning another Great War. At first, he dismissed the rumours. (PROSE: The Glamour Chase [+]Gary Russell, BBC New Series Adventures (BBC Books, 2010).)

Barbara Wright once raised the idea of a time traveller assassinating Hitler in 1930, asking what might happen. The First Doctor countered the suggestion by simply pointing out that Hitler wasn't assassinated. His reign was thus a fact of history which time travellers could not change. (PROSE: Doctor Who and the Crusaders [+]David Whitaker, adapted from The Crusade (David Whitaker), Target novelisations (Frederick Muller, 1966).) The Third Doctor did acknowledge, however, that, as with Napoleon Bonaparte before him, history would have taken a very different course without Hitler. (PROSE: Soldiers from Zolta [+]Doctor Who Annual 1971 (Doctor Who annual, 1970).) Shayde identified the temporal period in which World War II was a part as a "crucial nexus point" in Earth's development. He warned Fey Truscott-Sade that the war could not be interfered with without disrupting the Web of Time. (COMIC: Me and My Shadow [+]Scott Gray, DWM comic stories (Panini Comics, 2002).) The Eighth Doctor expressed the same concern. (AUDIO: Their Finest Hour [+]John Dorney, Ravenous 1 (The Eighth Doctor Adventures: Ravenous, Big Finish Productions, 2018).)

The Weimar Republic hosted a vast scientific community at establishments like the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, including Max Planck as its director, (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) Albert Einstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Eugene Wigner, Fritz Haber, Werner Heisenberg (AUDIO: The Alchemists [+]Ian Potter, The Companion Chronicles (Big Finish Productions, 2013).) and Wolfgang Pauli. The work of the latter two was followed closely by American scientist Robert Oppenheimer, while he was studying physics at Göttingen in Germany. Oppenheimer eventually returned to the United States to teach what he had learned at Caltech and Berkeley. This small development was to play a momentous role in the coming conflict. (PROSE: Atom Bomb Blues [+]Andrew Cartmel, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2005).)

The elections of 1932[]

During the 1920s, the United States of America enjoyed almost a decade of "wealth and excess" but in October 1929, the Wall Street Crash brought it to a sudden end. The stock market crashed, leading to the ten years of the Great Depression, which affected other countries as well such as Britain and Germany. (PROSE: A History of Humankind [+]Official Guides (BBC Children's Books, 2016).)

The Depression's impact on Germany's economy was disastrous, with unemployment rising to six million. The German people grew more angry, bitter and resentful with their government when it proved unable to cope with the problem. (PROSE: A History of Humankind [+]Official Guides (BBC Children's Books, 2016).) The economy was already crippled by the war and the Versailles reparations before the Depression hit. Germans began to feel neglected and abused by the United States. Jews received much of the blame for these problems, an attitude in Germany that dated back centuries. (AUDIO: The Alchemists [+]Ian Potter, The Companion Chronicles (Big Finish Productions, 2013).) As a young NSDAP activist, Hitler denounced Jews as a race which "spread all over the world" and "conquered all the money markets". He described them as "rich in vermin, vice and pestilence, grimly determined not to serve us but to rule." His supporters accused the Jews of taking away money and jobs from others. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) The Nazi Party was able to use the Depression to return to the political scene as a serious contender for power. (PROSE: A History of Humankind [+]Official Guides (BBC Children's Books, 2016).)

Alchemists Germany

The Weimar Republic was an unhappy and unstable state, rife with political turmoil and subterfuge. (AUDIO: The Alchemists [+]Ian Potter, The Companion Chronicles (Big Finish Productions, 2013).)

Amidst all the nation's problems, an election was held in Germany in July 1932 which failed to deliver a majority. Another election was held in November of that year. Parties with the initials Z, DVP, KPD, SPD and the NSDAP were among those standing in the elections, all attacking the incumbent Chancellor Papen and vowing to fix the economy. Once again, no party achieved a majority, resulting instead in unsuccessful and unpopular coalitions. With no one in charge, authority effectively vanished and there was no way to deal with crime, unrest and unemployment.

The thuggish Sturmabteilung (SA), a private army owned by Hitler who claimed the real army was too corrupt and lazy, filled the void left by the unreliable police force and clamped down on unrest and subversive elements such as Bolshevists. The Nazis were aware that their violent methods could drive away potential supporters, so they attempted to remain behind the scenes, away from the public eye, in order to let the results of their actions speak for themselves. Germans began to feel more content with the gradually improving situation, despite the excesses employed to make it happen.

Landing in Berlin in January 1933, the First Doctor told Susan Foreman that the war was "in the wind" at this stage. With Hitler on the rise, Einstein left for the United States. Susan and the Doctor became entangled in a plot to kidnap Fritz Haber and have him extract gold from sea water. While German underground crime syndicates sought the secret to aid in the nation's economic recovery, Pollitt, a member of the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) sought the secret as well. Susan wrecked Pollitt's chances of discovering the secret and potentially changing the history of the coming war. With history back on track, the Doctor and Susan later lamented that, if Germany had been in a better economic position, Hitler may not have come to power. (AUDIO: The Alchemists [+]Ian Potter, The Companion Chronicles (Big Finish Productions, 2013).)

The Nazis were able to seize power with only 33% of the vote. (PROSE: Players [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).) Hitler was finally appointed Chancellor of Germany (PROSE: A History of Humankind [+]Official Guides (BBC Children's Books, 2016).) on 30 January 1933. The Matrix recorded this event as being a part of the Web of Time. (AUDIO: Neverland [+]Alan Barnes, Main Range (Big Finish Productions, 2002).) Mels told her history teacher at Leadworth Secondary School that "A significant factor in Hitler's rise to power was the fact that the Doctor didn't stop him." (TV: Let's Kill Hitler [+]Steven Moffat, Doctor Who series 6 (BBC One, 2011).) Madame Berber and LeDuc later thought of Hitler as a small man who existed at just the right time to be able to poison the minds of millions. (AUDIO: The Dying Room [+]Lizzie Hopley, Torchwood (Big Finish Productions, 2017).)

The Third Reich[]

Main article: Third Reich
HitlerLooksLeft

Chancellor Adolf Hitler and the Nazi swastika. (TV: Let's Kill Hitler [+]Steven Moffat, Doctor Who series 6 (BBC One, 2011).)

As the Führer of the newly-proclaimed Third Reich, Hitler wasted no time in suppressing those he deemed his enemies. Before the end of 1933, the Nazis created a criminal state where their will was law. Jews were banned from working in any profession and their money and property were all confiscated or destroyed. They were banned from parks, beaten up by Nazi thugs and Synagogues were burned to the ground. Many Jews were murdered, left Germany or were imprisoned in concentration camps. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).)

It was not just Jews but minority groups, or anyone viewed as weak, who suffered under the Reich. Elections were totally abolished and books containing information which ran counter to the Nazi ideology were burned, while the people who wrote and read them were purged. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) Among such victims was Karl Muller, whose Ballots, Blood and Bullets was suppressed by the Nazis the year they came to power. The Nazis even publicly beat people up or murdered them in the streets if they refused to salute the flag. Anyone the Nazis so little as disliked the look of could become a target. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).)

The names of "non-humans" were taken by the government on official lists. Among those rounded up were a small number of people living as werewolves in Germany. They were locked up and starved in a camp reinforced with silver, but not outright killed while the Nazis decided what to do with them. (PROSE: Wolfsbane [+]Jacqueline Rayner, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2003).)

All political parties except for the Nazi Party were banned and the Nazis' political opponents were killed or sent to the camps. Alongside politicians, the Nazis also rounded up trade unionists, intellectuals and other opponents or potential opponents. Some disappeared silently, having been executed under the Reich's night and fog policy. (PROSE: Players [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).)

Fritz Haber fled Germany when Hitler came to power and died in exile in the United States in 1934. As the German Army had done in the previous war, the Nazis later used Haber's process to produce explosives and poisonous gases that could be used to kill hundreds of thousands of people in death camps. (AUDIO: The Alchemists [+]Ian Potter, The Companion Chronicles (Big Finish Productions, 2013)., PROSE: Nothing at the End of the Lane [+]Daniel O'Mahony, Short Trips and Side Steps (BBC Short Trips, 2000).) Germany also had access to the industries located in the Ruhr valley. (PROSE: The Paradise of Death [+]Barry Letts, adapted from The Paradise of Death (Barry Letts), Target novelisations (Target Books, 1994).)

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the early 1930s, Ramsay MacDonald, turned a blind eye to the new regime in Germany and instead prioritised domestic economic issues of unemployment rates and political issues concerning the Conservative Party. For this, the Seventh Doctor opined that MacDonald was an idiot. (PROSE: Log 384 [+]Richard Salter, Short Trips: The Centenarian (Short Trips short stories, 2006).) Winston Churchill, meanwhile, was one of the first people to recognise the danger posed by Hitler and the Nazis as well as Mussolini in Italy (PROSE: Players [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).) but his warnings largely went unheeded. While serving the government as Chancellor of the Exchequer, Churchill and his own party became increasingly fed up with each other. (WC: Amy's History Hunt [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) In the words of Edward Grainger, Churchill was a "self-glorifying, arrogant has-been... Spouting all that rubbish about Germany and Nazis." Nevertheless, Churchill attracted allies and sympathisers from within the Security Services, (PROSE: Log 384 [+]Richard Salter, Short Trips: The Centenarian (Short Trips short stories, 2006)., Players [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).) another name for MI5. (PROSE: Endgame [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).)

On 29 and 30 June 1934, fearing a plot against him, Hitler struck against his own private army and eradicated the leadership of the SA in the Night of the Long Knives. Two thousand people were executed in one day, (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) at Wiessee near Munich, including SA leader Ernst Rohm. (PROSE: Wolfsbane [+]Jacqueline Rayner, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2003).) Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich helped the Doctor chase the Master through Berlin as this was happening. By his fifth incarnation, a part of the Doctor regretted that he could not have killed both men before they carried out the crimes they would eventually commit. (PROSE: The King of Terror [+]Keith Topping, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).) According to the memories of Emmeline Neuberger, which may have been externally manipulated, the Schutzstaffel (SS) recruited the captive werewolves to partake in the massacre inside Wiessee hotel. Neuberger, one of the werewolves, sought refuge with family in England in the aftermath. (PROSE: Wolfsbane [+]Jacqueline Rayner, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2003).)

The SA was effectively replaced by the Schutzstaffel, the "Elite Guard" (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) or "defence echelon" who acted as Hitler's personal guard. The SS grew to encompass approximately a quarter of a million men who worked hard to suppress political dissent and demand loyalty to the Führer through acts of brutality. Its members were fanatics and elite fighters, (PROSE: Warlords of Utopia [+]Lance Parkin, Faction Paradox novels (Mad Norwegian Press, 2004).) highlighted through the two-year training prospective recruits had to pass through before they were officially inducted. Among the standard training exercises, potential recruits had to set a live grenade off on their own helmet while they were wearing it. By the end of the training, they were effectively brainwashed. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) SS members all had to have A-positive blood (AUDIO: The Dying Room [+]Lizzie Hopley, Torchwood (Big Finish Productions, 2017).) and Aryan ancestry dating back to the 18th century, all checked by Himmler, the leader of the SS. Successful members received their SS dagger and ring, and a black uniform. (PROSE: The Shadow in the Glass [+]Justin Richards and Stephen Cole, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2001).)

Oppenführer Hans Grau's Waffen-SS subdivision took over the Wilhelmine-era Institute of Alien Technology, renaming it Project Hermod. Like its British counterpart, the Torchwood Institute, it was established to protect the country from extraterrestrial threats. (AUDIO: The Dying Room [+]Lizzie Hopley, Torchwood (Big Finish Productions, 2017).)

Hitler's notoriety quickly grew around the rest of Europe. As a young boy, Jocelyn Stevens heard Hitler giving speeches on Nazi radio stations. He remembered Hitler's use of the phrase: "Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer!" (PROSE: Doctor Who and the Green Death [+]Malcolm Hulke, adapted from The Green Death (Robert Sloman), Target novelisations (Target Books, 1975).) Cecelia Pollard became a member of the League of English Fascists and met Hitler. (AUDIO: A Blind Eye [+]Alan Barnes, Gallifrey (Big Finish Productions, 2004).) Her parents, Louisa and Richard Pollard, cut contact with her because of her pro-fascists views. (AUDIO: The Fall of the House of Pollard [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) London builder's merchant George Ratcliffe of the Association took part in a march down Cable Street in the 1930s, denouncing Bolsheviks and Jews. The marchers advocated a fascist English government emulating the model of the German Reich. (PROSE: Remembrance of the Daleks [+]Ben Aaronovitch, adapted from Remembrance of the Daleks (Ben Aaronovitch), Target novelisations (Target Books, 1990).) Sir Oswald Mosley, who led the British Union of Fascists, (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) also tried to emulate Hitler by flanking himself with his "Blackshirts" (PROSE: Players [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).) They tried to drive Jews from the streets, which brought them into conflict with Tommy Ramsey's gang. (PROSE: Amorality Tale [+]David Bishop, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2002).)

Hitler sat at the top of the Nazi hierarchy and marvelled at the early progress made by his new regime. However, the Führer was not fond of hard work despite what his "superman" public image suggested. He enjoyed sleeping late, long lunches, conducting inspections of factories and new autobahns, and haranguing his subordinates. As such, the heavier responsibilities of state building and administration fell to the other high-ranking, loyal and ambitious ministers Hitler surrounded himself with: (PROSE: Players [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).)

The Seventh Doctor, before learning about the strengthening influence of the Timewyrm and the War Lords on Hitler, long considered it a mystery how such an assortment of individuals ever made it into power, given that they included among them:

A broken down drug-addicted ex-pilot [Goering], a failed chicken farmer [Himmler], an unsuccessful snob of a champagne salesman with a fake title [Ribbentrop] and a ratty little lecher embittered by a club foot [Goebbels]. A gang of total deadbeats, led by a paranoid failed art student [Hitler].The Seventh Doctor [src]

The Third Reich, which the ambitious Nazis extolled as the "Thousand Year Reich", (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) or der Tausendjährige Reich, (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996)., Warlords of Utopia [+]Lance Parkin, Faction Paradox novels (Mad Norwegian Press, 2004).) was in part modelled on the Roman Empire. Superiors were addressed with a click of the heels and the response of "Hiel!", (TV: Let's Kill Hitler [+]Steven Moffat, Doctor Who series 6 (BBC One, 2011).) based on the similar Roman response of "Hail!" The sadistic conduct of the Roman soldiers was also present in the Nazi ranks. Ian Chesterton and Vicki Pallister considered the Romans "quasi-Nazis" who bullied their way across Europe and the Middle East. (PROSE: Byzantium! [+]Keith Topping, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2001).) This was despite the ancient Germans' resistance against the Romans, a history which the Nazis exploited, somewhat ironically, for the purposes of national pride and propaganda. (PROSE: The Shadow in the Glass [+]Justin Richards and Stephen Cole, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2001)., Warlords of Utopia [+]Lance Parkin, Faction Paradox novels (Mad Norwegian Press, 2004).)

The swastika, hitherto known as a symbol of peace, (PROSE: Utopia [+]Darren Sellars, Short Trips: Farewells (Short Trips short stories, 2006).) was appropriated by the Nazis and became the symbol and adorned the flag of the Reich, the black cross centred in a white circle surrounded by red. The Nazis gathered annually in Nuremberg for the party rallies. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) The German people were taught of German science and achievements, and that they were not to trust Jews, democracy, Marxists, liberals (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996)., AUDIO: Just War [+]Jacqueline Rayner, adapted from Just War (Lance Parkin), Bernice Summerfield: Single Releases (Big Finish Productions, 1999).) homosexuals, gypsies, disabled people or any subversives who spoke against the Reich or the Führer. (TV: Let's Kill Hitler [+]Steven Moffat, Doctor Who series 6 (BBC One, 2011).)

The Nazi state rewrote the topics of biology, mythology, genealogy, history and geography to suit their own ends, actively removing works of genuine science and replaced it with works based on their racial doctrines. Germans were indoctrinated with the racist belief that the German people were a strong, beautiful and superior Aryan race in a world full of weak and decadent "subhumans". Nazi Germany came to believe that it was her destiny to sweep away the existing political systems and unite Europe and the world under the strength of Fascism, establishing a New Order under the prosperous "Thousand Year Reich", free of weakness, decadence, corruption, slums, crime, and economic destitution. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991)., Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996)., AUDIO: Just War [+]Jacqueline Rayner, adapted from Just War (Lance Parkin), Bernice Summerfield: Single Releases (Big Finish Productions, 1999).) This was despite the ancient Germans' history of resistance against the Romans, a history which the Nazis exploited for the purposes of national pride and propaganda. (PROSE: The Shadow in the Glass [+]Justin Richards and Stephen Cole, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2001)., Warlords of Utopia [+]Lance Parkin, Faction Paradox novels (Mad Norwegian Press, 2004).)

Atrocities in Asia[]

Main article: Pacific War
Demise of the old order[]

Before Hitler came to power, another storm was brewing in Asia, engendered by the decline of China and the simultaneous rise of Japan. Only recently in her history, Japan had ended Sakoku, the policy of national isolation, first imposed by the Shogun in the 1630s. The policy was born out of a suspicion of Christianity and Westerners, who the Japanese considered "barbarians". Two centuries of Sakoku increased this suspicion, as well as a growing awareness that Japan's development had stagnated and fallen behind the rest of the world. In the mid-19th century, American warships arrived in Edo (later Tokyo) harbour and demanded a trade agreement with Japan. The Shogun chose to accept and ended Japan's seclusion, opening the country up to the rest of the world for the first time in over 200 years. In the years that followed, Japan very quickly modernised. (AUDIO: The Barbarians and the Samurai [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Less than a century later, Japan had already founded the Japanese Empire, represented by a flag depicting a blood-red sun. (PROSE: The Shadow of Weng-Chiang [+]David A. McIntee, Virgin Missing Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

China's period of decline followed the crippling of the Chinese Empire by Britain and France during the Opium Wars prior to the mid-1860s. (PROSE: The Nightmare Fair [+]Graham Williams, adapted from The Nightmare Fair, Target Missing Episodes (Target Books, 1989)., The Eleventh Tiger [+]David A. McIntee, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2004)., AUDIO: The Nightmare Fair [+]Graham Williams, adapted from The Nightmare Fair, The Lost Stories (Big Finish Productions, 2009).) In 1911, the remnants of the Empire were swept away by Sun Yat Sen. Sun led an alliance of nationalist warlords in a revolution which succeeded in ousting the boy Emperor Pu Yi. The alliance formed into the Kuomintang which became the governing party of China. Subsequently, the Kuomintang turned its attention towards a growing communist influence fostered by the Soviet Union to the north. It fell to Chiang Kai-shek, Sun Yat Sen's successor as the leader of the Kuomintang, to combat the communist insurgencies. Chiang was successful in driving the Communists into the mountains of north and central China, bordering Mongolia, but the Nationalists were unable to dislodge the Communists further. Order in China eroded as the two ideologies fought each other into a stalemate.

Amid this confusion, the region of Manchuria in the north-east of China was threatened with trade strangulation by a new Russian railway stretching from Europe to the Pacific port of Vladivostok. Both Chinese and Japanese trade suffered as a result. Japan's expansionist ambitions on the continent were growing and the budding empire drew its attention towards China's natural resources, and the power struggle in the latter country presented an ideal opportunity. According to Major Ryuji Matsu of the Imperial Japanese Army, Japan sought to bring order to a China divided by Nationalists and Communists and attract trade back to the region. In 1931, the Sakura Kai engineered a fight between the Chinese to justify the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, claiming the Chinese had attacked first. By 1932, the Japanese occupation was complete, and the former Chinese emperor Pu Yi was enthroned as the ruler of the new puppet state of Manchukuo. (PROSE: The Shadow of Weng-Chiang [+]David A. McIntee, Virgin Missing Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

The occupying Kwantung Army set the Manchurian peasant population to work constructing Zhong Ma Fortress. The Kwantung Army committed many atrocities against the Chinese which deterred the peasants from attempting to escape. Those that did were shot on sight. Zhong Ma was a prison and research facility where the Japanese conducted experiments intended to forward the development of biological weapons. These projects were headed by the young military scientist Ishii Shiro and sponsored by the Japanese Emperor himself. Prisoners were dissected, blood samples were taken, and subjects were deliberately infected with bubonic plague, so that the Japanese could learn more about the human body and how to weaponise germs. (PROSE: Log 384 [+]Richard Salter, Short Trips: The Centenarian (Short Trips short stories, 2006).) Kwantung Army Intelligence set up their headquarters in Hsinking. (PROSE: The Shadow of Weng-Chiang [+]David A. McIntee, Virgin Missing Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) The occupation was the first step on Japan's road towards her ultimate aim of creating the Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere. (PROSE: The Face of the Enemy [+]David A. McIntee, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1998).)

Shanghai imposed sanctions on Japan, worsening the trade situations of both nations. Japanese soldiers stationed in the Shanghai International Settlement were deployed onto the streets in 1932 and briefly occupied the city. Some areas were subjected to air raids by aircraft launched from the aircraft carrier Hosho off the coast, and a number of the city's inhabitants were arrested and interrogated. Sung-Chi Li was captured by Ishiguro Takashi and interrogated by Ryuji Matsu, who promised Shanghai would one day fall to the Japanese. With Li becoming disillusioned with the capabilities of his own government to bring back stability, Matsu convinced him of Japan's need to bring order to China via their own rule and the two agreed on a partnership. Intervention by the Western powers, looking to protect their own trading centres, prevented the Shanghai crisis from escalating into full-scale war between China and Japan, at least for a short time. (PROSE: The Shadow of Weng-Chiang [+]David A. McIntee, Virgin Missing Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

When Mai Ling was made a prisoner in Zhong Ma in 1933, the Seventh Doctor sought to save her before the Japanese inadvertently unleashed the ghost warrior within her, bringing untold chaos and changing the course of the war. In order to gain access to the necessary resources and information to infiltrate the fortress, the Doctor warned the Churchill's sympathisers in MI5 of alliance talks being conducted in secret between the Nazis and the Japanese. In response, MI5 began recruiting operatives to send on a spy mission to Manchuria. It was not sanctioned by the British Government. The Doctor recruited Edward Grainger for his rescue mission. The two were briefly captured by the Japanese and experimented on but escaped and survived along with Mai Ling. Afterwards, the Doctor put forward a recommendation that Grainger be recruited in an unofficial capacity as an operative for the British Government, to be made official once the war began. Major-General Vernon Kell sent such an offer to Grainger, who accepted. (PROSE: Log 384 [+]Richard Salter, Short Trips: The Centenarian (Short Trips short stories, 2006).) His granddaughter, Linda Grainger, later recalled that Edward travelled a lot during the war. (PROSE: Childhood Living [+]Samantha Baker, Short Trips: The Centenarian (Short Trips, 2006).)

Tensions between Japan and China continued to grow as disputes over Manchuria/Manchukuo persisted. (PROSE: The Year of Intelligent Tigers [+]Kate Orman, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2001).) In Japan, where the government was run by army generals, (PROSE: Endgame [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).) the Army split into two factions who disagreed on the best course of action, although both sides advocated expansion into other countries. The Kodo Ha, controlled by the Sakura Kai, pushed for further consolidation of Manchukuo and expansion into China to offset strategic advantages enjoyed by the Soviet Union. The Tosei Ha felt it better to adhere to the formal rules of engagement and achieve their ambitions while working within the political system. The Kodo Ha controlled the local commanders in Manchukuo and used them to assassinate various government ministers, including prime ministers, between 1933 and 1935 to influence government policy. In February 1936, the Sakura Kai engineered a revolt in Tokyo by the Japanese First Infantry Division, supporters of the Kodo Ha. Many government officials and civil servants were killed before the revolt was suppressed by imperial order. The Tosei Ha, at least nominally, maintained control of the Army but the Kodo Ha still held onto the control of the Manchukuo commanders and were able to exert pressure on the Tosei Ha, who made alterations to their policy. (PROSE: The Shadow of Weng-Chiang [+]David A. McIntee, Virgin Missing Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

Fighting between the Chinese and Japanese occurred in 1936. The War Lords and the renegade Time Lord the War Chief (prior to their machinations with Hitler and the Nazis) kidnapped some of these soldiers to have them participate in the War Games, placing them in the Chinese sector. Another account claimed that the War Lords did not take soldiers from time periods beyond 1917 owing to the risk of their "greater technological knowledge." (TV: The War Games [+]Terrance Dicks and Malcolm Hulke, Doctor Who season 6 (BBC1, 1969).) The survivors were returned home by the Time Lords when the War Lords were defeated. (PROSE: Doctor Who and the War Games [+]Malcolm Hulke, adapted from The War Games (Terrance Dicks and Malcolm Hulke), Target novelisations (Target Books, 1979).) It was after the failure of the War Games and their subsequent imprisonment that the War Lords turned their attention to Nazi Germany. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).)

Finally, in July 1937, the commanders in Manchukuo who supported the Kodo Ha provoked a fight between a handful of Chinese soldiers at Marco Polo Bridge and justified their actions by claiming the Chinese had attacked first. With Japanese troops now engaged in ongoing hostilities, the Tosei Ha government was forced to move onto a war footing. The first stages of true war in Asia had begun. (PROSE: The Shadow of Weng-Chiang [+]David A. McIntee, Virgin Missing Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) Over the ensuing years, the conflict would grow larger in scale and become known as the Pacific War. (COMIC: 4-Dimensional Vistas [+]Steve Parkhouse, DWM Comics (Marvel Comics, 1983).)

War in China[]
Main article: Second Sino-Japanese War

The front lines opened up on the Manchurian frontier, almost 400 miles north-east from Shanghai. The Japanese Twelfth Army made efforts to push south into Shangdong province, where they gained control of everything north of Tai'an and the mountain of T'ai Shan. The Imperial Army Air Fleet launched air raids from Manchuria against Shanghai using Mitsubishi Ki-15 single-engined planes, "just to prove that they can," according to the Fourth Doctor. Mitsubishi A5Ms also harassed KMT troop trains transporting Chinese Nationalist troops to the north. However, the initial aim of the Japanese was not to advance but to consolidate Manchuria, meaning the fighting was relatively light for a time. Nationalist China, meanwhile, was disadvantaged by the need to divide forces between the Japanese front lines near Shangdong and the Communist-held regions near Mongolia.

Ishiguro Takashi began seeking revenge for the deaths of his brothers in the 1936 revolt in Tokyo. Hunted by the Sakura Kai, he deserted the Imperial Army and fled from Japan to Hong Kong and then China where he began plotting against the "traitors" who controlled Japan's military government. There, under the guise of Woo, the Hong Kong-born owner of Club Do-San in Shanghai, he sought to build a united front against the Kwantung Army before they drove south from Manchuria. Bigger Chinese criminal organisations were already preparing to resist further Japanese invasions. Woo worked as a vigilante, who became known as Yan Cheh, cracking down on crimes committed against others in China. Such acts only served as costly distractions at a time when the resistance to the Japanese military had to be as strong as possible.

In August 1937, Hsien-Ko and the Tong of the Black Scorpion sought to prevent Magnus Greel from travelling to 1872, in order to formally punish him and avenge the death of Hsien-Ko's father, Li H'sen Chang. Affiliating the Tong with the Kuomintang to do so, Hsien-Ko believed her success would, among other things, allow her to change time, preventing the invasion of Manchuria and China's war against Japan altogether. She had many encounters, often fatal, with Japanese forces while travelling in Manchukuo and Shangdong on her mission. Her efforts were ultimately thwarted by Sung-Chi Li who, working for Major Matsu as a double agent, wrecked Hsien-Ko's nuclear reactor and then manipulated the Tong members into fighting each other. Afterwards, the Fourth Doctor and Romana I used the TARDIS to time ram Greel's time cabinet back on course before Hsien-Ko created a temporal paradox.

Eventually, the Japanese Army moved into Shanghai. (PROSE: The Shadow of Weng-Chiang [+]David A. McIntee, Virgin Missing Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

The data gathered from the experiments in Zhong Ma and its successor, Unit 731, led to the creation of biological weapons which the Japanese unleashed to cause the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people in China during the war. Germ-ridden packages were dropped on Chinese towns and villages throughout Manchuria. (PROSE: Log 384 [+]Richard Salter, Short Trips: The Centenarian (Short Trips short stories, 2006).)

Europe on the brink[]

Growing strength of the Reich[]

Amid the growing tensions back in Europe, the Spanish Civil War occurred, between 1936 and 1939. Fascists fought on the side of the Nationalists. (PROSE: History 101 [+]Mags L. Halliday, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2002).) Spain stayed neutral in the World War. (AUDIO: Resistance [+]Steve Lyons, The Companion Chronicles (Big Finish Productions, 2009).)

Mussolini allied himself with Hitler with a vision of returning Italy to greatness. Edward Greyhaven opined that Mussolini was a "fool" to ally himself with a "monster" such as Hitler. (PROSE: The Dying Days [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1997).)

George Limb attended another conference in Munich in 1936. (PROSE: Illegal Alien [+]Mike Tucker and Robert Perry, adapted from Illegal Alien, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1997).)

The Allies adopted a policy of appeasement towards Germany. Rather than risk war, the British chose diplomacy and bargaining with the Nazis, giving Hitler the benefit of the doubt. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) Winston Churchill opposed the policy of appeasement. After Hitler reoccupied the Rhineland in direct contravention of the Versailles Treaty, Churchill began to fear what plans he had for the rest of Europe, more immediately with Czechoslovakia and Poland. (PROSE: Players [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).) Also in 1936, the Royal Air Force and British bomber forces came under the control of Bomber Command. (PROSE: A History of Humankind [+]Official Guides (BBC Children's Books, 2016).)

The arrangement suited Hitler very well as it staved off war, giving Germany more time to build up her military. This included the army, the Wehrmacht, (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) the navy, the Kriegsmarine, (PROSE: The Shadow in the Glass [+]Justin Richards and Stephen Cole, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2001).) and the air force, the Luftwaffe, which was run by Hermann Goering. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) This was despite German companies in the 1920s and early 1930s being forbidden to produce fighter aircraft. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

The Luftwaffe was signified by a black cruciform. (PROSE: The Face of the Enemy [+]David A. McIntee, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1998).) and included the aircraft makes of the Heinkel, the Dornier, the Junkers, the Messerschmitt and the Storch. (PROSE: Warlords of Utopia [+]Lance Parkin, Faction Paradox novels (Mad Norwegian Press, 2004).)

According to Oskar Steinmann, an advanced aircraft took six months to draw up specifications, after which aviation companies competed to consider the cost, requirements, and time of construction, which took a further nine to ten months. The Luftwaffe then contracted the company with the best bid to build the plane. Creating the prototype could take two and a half years. Top Luftwaffe pilots then ran test flights for a period of approximately sixteen months. Under normal circumstances, after these tests were completed satisfactorily, construction and testing could begin on a squadron for another two years. Finally, the Luftwaffe decided how many planes of that specific type they needed, which took another year. The whole process could take up to eight years but in some special cases, and in wartime, corners could be cut to speed up the process. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996)., AUDIO: Just War [+]Jacqueline Rayner, adapted from Just War (Lance Parkin), Bernice Summerfield: Single Releases (Big Finish Productions, 1999).)

The Luftwaffe construction process was aided by Emil Hartung, a racing driver who constructed his own cars. Hartung was an expert in aerodynamics, physics, rocketry, mathematics, metallurgy and radio waves. In Cairo in January 1936, he competed in the Cairo 500 and won, thanks in part to modifications the Seventh Doctor made to his car. The two men and Melanie Bush met in the Grand Imperial Hotel that night when the sight of an owl sparked a conversation about sonar and radar properties in nature, the scientific research of which was beyond Hartung's time. However, his intellect and imagination helped him to connect some dots in his own knowledge, consequences the Doctor and Mel remained unaware of. Mel grew close to Hartung until she learned he was a member of the Nazi Party. The Cairo 500 turned out to be Hartung's last major public appearance. He later returned to Germany and pledged himself to the Reich. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

Back in Germany, Hartung met Jason Kane when the latter was sent back in time to 1936. They ended up sharing a drink but when Kane found out Hartung was a Nazi, he too expressed his disgust for losses his family has suffered in the war, but Hartung thought he was talking about World War I. Before departing, Kane accidentally let slip further information from the future which strengthened Hartung's idea of inventing a plane that was invisible to radar detection at a time when radar technology was still in its infancy. (AUDIO: Just War [+]Jacqueline Rayner, adapted from Just War (Lance Parkin), Bernice Summerfield: Single Releases (Big Finish Productions, 1999).)

In November 1936, Hartung began working with the Luftwaffe in Rechlin, north of Berlin, where he stayed for the next three years. The Reich afforded him any resources he required, be it men, materials or money. Despite the amount of time he spent working for the Luftwaffe and his membership of the Nazi Party, some of the racing drivers who knew him opined that he was opposed to the Nazis. Secretly, his grandmother was Jewish. Hartung immediately began working on the Hartung Project, the long but fast-tracked process of creating the advanced stealth bombers Hugin and Munin. At a cost of three million Reichsmarks, it was too expensive to produce a squadron, but they were covered in a new carbon foam which acted as a Jaumann absorber and Yehudi lights. The aircraft would be able to absorb radar and light energy. The material was sound-proof and even hard to detect with the human eye. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

Anglo-German relations and the abdication crisis[]
Main article: Abdication crisis

The Nazis were planning an ambitious expansionist programme intended to bring much of Eastern Europe under Germany's control, partially influenced by the British Empire and its control over the entire subcontinent of India with relatively few troops. Hitler considered the British an Aryan race whose superiority manifested itself in their empire, and he thought it right that the Germans should emulate the British model. To this end, he sought to cultivate positive relations with Britain and form an alliance to such a degree that Britain would become a German province in all but name.

Many people throughout Britain, including a number of the ruling classes, were in favour of some kind of alliance with Germany, either to avoid a repeat of 1914, or out of support or sympathy for the Nazi movement. These attitude were symbolised by the appeasement policy but they were not universal. Winston Churchill and his allies, particularly among the Security Services, highly distrusted Hitler, recognising the reoccupation of the Rhineland as a direct contravention of the Versailles Treaty which has implications for the rest of Europe. They dreaded Germany's massive rearmament programme, with a strong army and an air force which threatened the Royal Navy with obsolescence

For a time, the pro-appeasement factions within British society won out. The Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, disliked Churchill and excluded him from a Cabinet position. Churchill persisted in his efforts to warn people of the threat posed by Germany, and Italy, but in the immediate term, this only served to increase his unpopularity among the Conservative Party and his career entered another decline such as had followed the disastrous Dardanelles campaign in 1915. Appeasement continued and Churchill was only kept up-to-date with defensive developments only in an unofficial, even illegal, capacity by meeting discreetly with friends in military intelligence, among them Colonel Jeremy Carstairs, who lamented that Churchill was not Minister of Defence. (PROSE: Players [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).)

On 16 November 1936, King Edward VIII announced his irrevocable decision to marry Wallis Simpson. The Seventh Doctor contacted Churchill to advise him against supporting the King, warning that Simpson was a shape-shifter from Verossikon Prime. (PROSE: The Lost Diaries of Winston Spencer Churchill [+]Mark Gatiss, The Brilliant Book 2011 (The Brilliant Book 2011 short stories, BBC Books, 2010).) The idea of a morganatic marriage among the Royals embroiled Baldwin's Cabinet in something of a national scandal. (PROSE: Wolfsbane [+]Jacqueline Rayner, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2003).) The matter was further complicated by Edward's strongly pro-German views. Simpson also grew close to the German Ambassador, Joachim von Ribbentrop, and spent a lot of time at the German Embassy. British Intelligence eventually discovered that sensitive diplomatic information had been leaked to the Germans from the King's private residence at Fort Belvedere. Simpson was the prime suspect and it was eventually decided that such information had to be withheld from the King, with his loyalty to his country brought into question. (PROSE: Players [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).)

By 28 November, the press was reporting the marriage controversy. After an incident in West Country on that same night, Emmeline Neuberger was taken to a London research centre. A secretive British operation, anticipating another war with Germany, tried to harness her lycanthropy as a weapon. Had they succeeded, they planned to send her back to Germany to infiltrate and undermine their war effort. (PROSE: Wolfsbane [+]Jacqueline Rayner, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2003).)

Kriemhilde Steiner

Professor Kriemhilde Steiner in London, seeking the "Eagle of ultima Thule". (COMIC: The Eagle of the Reich [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.)

On 30 November 1936, undercover Nazi agent Professor Kriemhilde Steiner of the Black Science Division unearthed a phoenix egg near the Crystal Palace in London. The Nazis believed the artefact to be the "Eagle of ultima Thule" that would grant the Reich great power. The Eleventh Doctor, Amy Pond and Rory Williams investigated her dig site and confronted her. When Steiner tried to retrieve the egg, the phoenix hatched, burning her to death and setting the Crystal Palace alight. Churchill later arrived to see the fire and lamented the spectacle as signifying "the end of an era." The Doctor warned Churchill that worse times were on the horizon but assured him that he would be the best man to lead his country through them. (COMIC: The Eagle of the Reich [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.)

Despite Churchill's sinking popularity, Hitler remained bothered by his efforts, seeing "that gangster" and his allies as a threat to the Reich's standing in British public opinion. While ordering the main German Embassy gutted and remodelled by Albert Speer, Ribbentrop worked to counter the anti-appeasers by meeting with important British figures and promoting good relations with Germany. He was aided by the Count and Countess, who provided Ribbentrop with a list of all notable figures all across Britain with Nazi sympathies, including people in Parliament, the British Army, the Civil Service, the Police and the aristocracy. Ribbentrop gleefully reported on his progress to Hitler as he, the Players, and the King and Simpson began conspiring with each other to stage a coup. (PROSE: Players [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).)

On 10 December, (PROSE: Wolfsbane [+]Jacqueline Rayner, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2003).) the crisis reached its climax. The Players and Ribbentrop attempted to remove Churchill and the newly-arrived Sixth Doctor and Peri Brown from the picture. Two assassination attempts were defeated and although Peri was kidnapped, she was rescued when the Doctor led a raid on the temporary German Embassy at 17 Carlton House Terrace. Ribbentrop's SS men were sent home to Berlin after serious injury or failure and his list was stolen after Peri knocked him out.

After repeated meetings with Baldwin, Edward announced he would abdicate if he could not marry Simpson. Secretly, he planned to announce the dissolution of parliament and instigate a pro-German coup by the listed Nazi sympathisers, potentially with Churchill as the new Prime Minister after misjudging his stance. However, the Embassy raid forewarned Churchill of the coup and he sabotaged the King's speech by having it locally recorded for use as evidence of treason rather than broadcast live over BBC radio. Troops under Colonel Carstairs and Rodney Fitzsimmons apprehended the accomplices attending the event, including Sir Oswald Mosley's Blackshirts filling in for Ribbentrop's men, while any sympathisers waiting to instigate the coup were either arrested or remained inactive.

At 10:00 pm that day, the King was forced to sign the Instrument of Abdication and delivered a speech pre-prepared by Baldwin and Churchill. Edward and Simpson were effectively exiled and the King's brother, the Duke of York, prepared to take the throne as King George VI. Edward and Simpson left England with apparently little memory of the attempted coup as if they had largely been under the Players' influence. (PROSE: Players [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).) George's coronation was to take place on 12 May 1937. (PROSE: Wolfsbane [+]Jacqueline Rayner, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2003).)

Ribbentrop returned to Germany where he informed Hitler his promises of an alliance with England would not be fulfilled. His list of potential sympathisers had also been stolen and replaced by a worthless laundry list. The news sent Hitler into a violent fury and Ribbentrop fled his Chancellery office to return to England. Bormann was becoming more and more worried about the frequency and severity of these fits and decided to seek the service of a psychic adviser who had previously examined Hitler, and seemed had a calming effect on him, named Dr. Felix Kriegslieter. (PROSE: Players [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).)

On 12 December, the Fourth Doctor freed Emmeline Neuberger from her imprisonment. Having chosen to believe her memories, she resolved to return to Germany and liberate the rest of her fellow werewolves from captivity. However, with the approaching war and the desire for both side to use werewolves as superweapons, the Doctor doubted she would succeed. (PROSE: Wolfsbane [+]Jacqueline Rayner, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2003).)

The devourer of Europe[]

Bormann's hiring of Dr. Kriegslieter (PROSE: Players [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).) provided the latter with a new proximity to Hitler which allowed him to further his own agenda. Kriegslieter was in fact the War Chief, having assumed the German translation of his title. His standing with Hitler allowed the War Lords to more closely affiliated themselves with the Nazi Party, which they had been observing since the 1923 Putsch. The War Chief dismissed much of the Nazis' core beliefs as nonsensical pseudoscience but this mattered little while their interests coincided. Bormann remained suspicious of Kriegslieter but the situation left him little choice.

Kriegslieter and the War Lords – including the son of the original War Lord leader of the War Games – were able to win favour with Himmler by appealing to his obsession with Teutonic mythology and the occult. On the pretence that they were performing mystic rituals, the War Lords were granted a base of operations in the tower of Himmler's private castle of Drachensberg. They called themselves the Black Coven in order to maintain this pretence. Believing in the delicacy and importance of their work, Himmler usually left this wing of the castle alone.

Meanwhile, Himmler's Ancestral Research branch of the SS laboured to discover the occult origins of Aryanism. He was a follower of the Secret Doctrine of the Golden Dawn, and had interests in the Quest for the Holy Grail and Atlantis, reputed to be the secret home of the Master Race. He sent expeditions to Tibet in search of traces of the Secret Masters. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) Tibetan occultists were recruited to play supernatural roles in the coming war. Hitler, in contrast to Himmler, was far from convinced of the value and validity of occultism. He allowed Himmler to continue his pet projects for reasons of propaganda and national morale. (PROSE: The Shadow in the Glass [+]Justin Richards and Stephen Cole, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2001).)

In 1937, the Hossbach Niederschrift was drawn up. The document effectively controlled Nazi thinking. Among its key elements was the need for Germany to begin a programme of expansion within five years, before German weapons grew obsolete an the army recruits grew too old. (PROSE: Warlords of Utopia [+]Lance Parkin, Faction Paradox novels (Mad Norwegian Press, 2004).)

At Sedgwick College at the University of Cambridge, Professor Linus Woolf conducted secret experiments which sparked violence among the students. Woolf tried to fain ignorance by suggesting the violence was influenced by the rise of the Reich on the continent. Woolf actually believed that the human race was becoming too violent and sought to halt their scientific advancements, giving Hitler discovering nuclear power as an example of how this could lead to a catastrophe, although the First Doctor countered that there was no evidence that that would happen. Woolf was eventually exposed and stopped, but students Kim Philby and Guy Burgess felt that he was right to be concerned about the rise of the Nazis and considered playing a part in the struggle against Hitler by pursuing a working relationship with the college's new Soviet provost. (AUDIO: Entanglement [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Philby and Burgess became converts to communism during their time at Cambridge and began working as Russian agents. (PROSE: Endgame [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).)

The Twelfth Doctor and Clara Oswald had dinner in Berlin in 1937. The Doctor later reminded Clara that they did not and nor could they decide to kill Hitler afterwards as it was impossible for them to change the future. (TV: Kill the Moon [+]Peter Harness, Doctor Who series 8 (BBC One, 2014).) The Third Doctor claimed Jo Grant meeting with Grigori Rasputin in St Petersburg in 1916 was as reckless as seeking out Hitler in 1930s Berlin, although Jo objected to the comparison of the two. (PROSE: The Wages of Sin [+]David A. McIntee, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).)

Also in 1937, a new German submachine gun, the MP 38, was manufactured by Ermawerke in Erfurt. It was issued at first to the SS in 1938, although some had been smuggled to China the previous year to aid Hsien-Ko and the Black Scorpion. (PROSE: The Shadow of Weng-Chiang [+]David A. McIntee, Virgin Missing Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

German Officer

Berlin under Nazi rule. (TV: Let's Kill Hitler [+]Steven Moffat, Doctor Who series 6 (BBC One, 2011).)

In 1938, the Nemesis statue passed over Earth, influencing Hitler to annex Austria. Hans de Flores stood next to Hitler as he "ordered the first giant step towards greatness." (TV: Silver Nemesis [+]Kevin Clarke, Doctor Who season 25 (BBC1 and TVNZ, 1988).) The event became known as the Anschluss. (PROSE: The Danger Men [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Despite the Versailles settlement, the Germans met no international resistance in response to the annexation which further emboldened the Reich's ambitions. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).)

On the day of the annexation, Hitler drove to a museum in Vienna which held the Hapsburg crown jewels, as well as the fabled Spear of Destiny, used by the Roman Longinus to stab Jesus Christ on the Cross in Judea in 33 AD and later transported across the Mediterranean Sea to Europe by Odin and the Vikings in the 2nd century. (PROSE: The Spear of Destiny [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Previously carried into battle by Charlemagne and Frederick Barbarossa in campaigns which built the Holy Roman Empire, the Nazis saw the Spear as a symbol of the Destiny of the German people. Some, including SS Captain Hartmann who accompanied Hitler to Vienna, believed the Spear was a direct channel to Heaven, (PROSE: Illegal Alien [+]Mike Tucker and Robert Perry, adapted from Illegal Alien, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1997).) and that it would grant invincibility to the army which possessed it. (PROSE: The Spear of Destiny [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.)

Given its significance to German history, Hitler was eager to obtain the Spear and had it transported to Berlin to be housed in another museum. Unbeknownst to Hitler, the Spear was one of six Physical Temporal Nexuses, super weapons with the ability to shape reality to the will of those who wielded them. Ultimately, Germany's possession of the Spear throughout the coming war did not influence the outcome of the conflict in Hitler's favour. While some scholars theorised that the spear taken from Vienna was a 13th century fake, the Third Doctor hypothesised that it was authentic; it simply made no difference to the war as no one personally wielded it. Had Hitler known the true power of a PTN such as the one he had in his possession, his victory could have been easily achieved. The Doctor, however, subsequently replaced the Spear in 141 AD with a fake, to send the genuine PTN to the Time Lords. (PROSE: The Spear of Destiny [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.)

The Nazis began rounding up Austrian academics. Jewish chemist and mathematician Zsasha Edelstein fled her academic field to find work in a munitions factory, believing she was safer, but she fled again when the Nazis took over the factories. She hid as an actress under the name of Zsa Zsa Straus but she was made to act in Nazi propaganda films. Soon she fled Austria altogether, unaware if her family had also managed to escape or if they had survived at all. (AUDIO: The Jabari Countdown [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.)

German occupation of Czechoslovakia swiftly followed. Oskar Steinmann claimed that both Austria and Czechoslovakia welcomed German rule due to the Nazis' commitment to unite the world under the strong ideology of Fascism. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996)., AUDIO: Just War [+]Jacqueline Rayner, adapted from Just War (Lance Parkin), Bernice Summerfield: Single Releases (Big Finish Productions, 1999).)

Another conference held in Munich tried to settle the resulting crisis peacefully. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain attended, but George Limb opined that Chamberlain let Hitler walk all over him, highlighting the Allies' lack of resolve. Chamberlain returned to the UK where he announced, "I have in my hand a piece of paper..." (PROSE: Illegal Alien [+]Mike Tucker and Robert Perry, adapted from Illegal Alien, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1997).) which promised "peace in our time." The Fifth Doctor thought Chamberlain made wrong decisions on this occasion but for the right reasons. (PROSE: One Wednesday Afternoon [+]Alison Jacobs, Short Trips: A Day in the Life (Short Trips short stories, 2005).) As time would tell, peace was not what Hitler wanted. He expressed his ambitions for world domination, intending to attack Poland, then Russia, then Persia and then move into India and Asia. Britain guaranteed aid to Poland in the event she was attacked but Hitler did not expect Britain to honour the guarantee as she had previously backed down from similar promises. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) The Third Doctor recalled Hitler said something along the lines of "Today [one conquest], tomorrow the world!" (PROSE: Doctor Who and the Green Death [+]Malcolm Hulke, adapted from The Green Death (Robert Sloman), Target novelisations (Target Books, 1975).) A speech by the Master about "ultimate power" and "strong leadership" over humans also reminded the Doctor of either Hitler or Genghis Khan. (TV: The Dæmons [+]Guy Leopold, Doctor Who season 8 (BBC1, 1971).) He also belittled Hitler as a "criminal thug" and "gangster conqueror" in the same vein as Genghis Khan, Napoleon and Attila the Hun. (PROSE: Galactic Gangster [+]Doctor Who Annual 1974 (Doctor Who annual, 1973).)

During the Czechoslovakia crisis, Hitler experienced another fit of anger which briefly allowed the Timewyrm some measure of control over him, appearing to grant him supernatural powers. An ageing General Staff Officer was present to witness it and died of a heart attack at the sight. Responding to his screams, Bormann found the office was wrecked, the General dead and Hitler, once again, unconscious. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).)

Adolf-hitler

Hitler's encounter with the Eleventh Doctor during the Teselecta incident. (TV: Let's Kill Hitler [+]Steven Moffat, Doctor Who series 6 (BBC One, 2011).)

The Teselecta travelled to Berlin in 1938 where its crew executed Nazi officer General Erich Zimmerman on the charge of category three hate crimes. The Teselecta proceeded to Hitler's office to inflict on him the same punishment before realising they were too early in Hitler's time stream. Seconds later, Hitler was saved by the TARDIS crashing through his office window. The Eleventh Doctor told him that saving his life was "an accident" and warned him that "The British are coming!" before Rory Williams locked him in a cupboard. The Doctor, Rory and Amy Pond then left Hitler's office and pursued River Song through the streets of Berlin. (TV: Let's Kill Hitler [+]Steven Moffat, Doctor Who series 6 (BBC One, 2011).)

In 1938 or 1939, the Nazis sent an expedition to Antarctica. They laid a claim to the region, planting swastikas around their territory. Their interest was ostensibly geological and archaeological in nature, but unbeknownst to the rest of the world, they constructed an underground base, built in the shape of a swastika. (PROSE: The Shadow in the Glass [+]Justin Richards and Stephen Cole, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2001).) They named their territory Neuschwabenland. (PROSE: The Crawling Terror [+]Mike Tucker, BBC New Series Adventures (BBC Books, 2014).)

In 1939, Italy invaded and conquered Albania with what was mockingly viewed by the Albanians as an "army of toy soldiers." Their defeat at Italy's hand shamed them greatly. (PROSE: Deadly Reunion [+]Terrance Dicks and Barry Letts, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2003).) In the same year, Kim Philby joined MI6 and found that the operation was run nowhere near as professionally as he expected. (PROSE: Endgame [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).)

The Polish crisis[]

Poland became Germany's next target. Not only did the Nazis view Poland as a product of the hated Versailles Treaty but millions of Germans also lived there prior to her gaining independence. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996)., AUDIO: Just War [+]Jacqueline Rayner, adapted from Just War (Lance Parkin), Bernice Summerfield: Single Releases (Big Finish Productions, 1999).) Hitler continued to act despite the British and French guarantee of aid to Poland in the event of invasion. He still expected them to back down yet again as his advisers had been leading him to believe and, according to Joseph Goebbels, Hitler admired the British and viewed them as another Aryan race, although he was willing to crush anyone who resisted him. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) Other senior elements of the German government also considered the British "Aryan blood brothers". (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

Before invading, Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union. (AUDIO: An Eye For Murder [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Although Hitler loathed the Soviets, regarding them as "Bolshevik scum", and fully intended to attack them, the non-aggression pact was intended to keep the Soviets off Germany's back while Poland, and then Western Europe, were dealt with. The pact stipulated that Poland be divided between Germany and Russia. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) George Limb was present in Russia shortly before the deal was struck. (PROSE: Illegal Alien [+]Mike Tucker and Robert Perry, adapted from Illegal Alien, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1997).) According to Isabella Zemanova, the pact gave Russians the impression that they would be spared another war with Germany, but her husband, Lev Zemanova, a schoolteacher who became a captain in the Red Army, felt that Hitler could not be trusted. (PROSE: The Beast of Stalingrad [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.)

At the end of August, the Nazis held another rally at Nuremberg, where Hitler paid tribute to the Nazi Party's "Glorious Dead". After giving another speech, Hitler met the Seventh Doctor (calling himself Johann Schmidt) again, whom he recognised as the man who had helped him after the failure of the 1923 Putsch. The Doctor, still trying to prevent the creation of a divergent timeline, spoke to Hitler in his office that night and claimed to have psychic abilities which allowed him to see the future. He revealed some details about the start of the coming war in an attempt to influence Hitler to follow history's natural path. After the Doctor told him Britain would declare war on Germany if the latter invaded Poland, Hitler was overcome by another bout of anger as he ranted about his grander ambitions. The power of the Timewyrm briefly unleashed itself again until Hitler lost consciousness, and Bormann arrived at the scene of the disturbance again. The Doctor and Ace were sent to stay in Berlin for a number of days at Hitler's request. The Doctor still intended to monitor Hitler for any externally-generated instability and make sure history stayed on track.

Dr. Kriegslieter and the War Lords became concerned that Hitler's fits were becoming too erratic and posed a threat to their future interests. They considered replacing him with one of his more stable underlings, with their ideal choice being Himmler. Goering, on the other hand, was considered "too individualistic" and the War Lords thought it best to dispose of him. The Nazi hierarchy was not yet made party to this plan, although Himmler also considered that Hitler may have to be relieved of the burden of leadership at some stage. Out of loyalty, however, Himmler still favoured allowing Hitler to rule as king or emperor while someone else took on the challenges of office.

As the Poland crisis reached breaking point, Goebbels' Nazi propaganda painted Poland as the aggressor. In the last few days of European peace, German newspapers bore inflammatory headlines such as "Warsaw threatens bombardment", "Unbelievable agitation of Polish war madness" and "Poland against peace in Europe." It was all the opposite of the truth. Finally, Hitler claimed that the Polish had conducted an unprovoked attack on Germany soil which forced his hand. The war in Europe formally began on Friday 1 September 1939 with the German invasion of Poland. Hitler announced to the Reichstag at the start of the invasion:

I am wrongly judged if my love of peace and my patience are mistaken for weakness or even cowardice. I have therefore resolved to speak to Poland in the language Poland uses to us. Last night, for the first time, Polish soldiers fired on our territory. We have been returning the fire. From now on, bombs will be met with bombs!Adolf Hitler [src]

He also declared that he was now but a simple soldier of Germany and vowed to wear his brown soldier's coat until the end of the war.

On the morning of Sunday 3 September, Hitler was quickly satisfied with the German progress in Poland and summoned the Doctor to his office in the Chancellery. He was confident Britain's guarantee of aid would come to nothing and challenged the Doctor's earlier prediction. However, Britain responded to the invasion with an ultimatum, demanding that the German forces in Poland withdraw or there would be war. Joachim von Ribbentrop received a communication to this effect from the British Ambassador. Ribbentrop and an interpreter named Schmidt reached Hitler's office at precisely 9 o'clock. Having long surrounded himself with sycophantic advisers, Hitler believed the British would back down yet again and expected the communication to contain nothing more than a mere message of protest but as Schmidt read on, Hitler realised that now Britain was serious and he had been given two hours to comply with their terms. He sat silently for ages and then asked Ribbentrop, "What now?" Ribbentrop responded, "I assume the French will hand in a similar ultimatum within the hour." Further enraged, Hitler shouted Ribbentrop and Schmidt out of the room. In Hitler's fury, the Timewyrm began to reassert control again. The Doctor intervened and implored Hitler to resist. The Führer calmed down just as Bormann, Goering and Ribbentrop reappeared with news of setbacks on the Polish front that required Hitler's attention. The calming effect of Bormann instilled more confidence in Hitler. He crumpled the ultimatum up and ordered Bormann to contact the British Ambassador and tell him the terms of the ultimatum would not and could not be fulfilled.

Consequently, Britain and France declared war on Germany two hours after the ultimatum reached Hitler's desk, (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) another event which the Matrix recorded as being a part of the Web of Time. (AUDIO: Neverland [+]Alan Barnes, Main Range (Big Finish Productions, 2002).) In a speech broadcast over the radio from 10 Downing Street on the day of Britain's declaration of war, Chamberlain delivered the news to the British public:

This morning the British Ambassador in Berlin handed the German Government a final Note stating that, unless we heard from them by 11 o'clock that they were prepared at once to withdraw their troops from Poland, a state of war would exist between us. I have to tell you now that no such undertaking has been received, and that consequently this country is at war with Germany.Neville Chamberlain [src]

The War[]

Hitler conquers Europe[]

Invasion of Poland[]
Main article: Invasion of Poland

Even before the Western Allies declared war on Germany, the Wehrmacht flooded across the Polish frontier and made striking progress in the span of two days. Yet it was considered "far from satisfactory" that Warsaw had not fallen in that short amount of time, owing to setbacks faced by the German forces. This news prompted Hitler to travel to Poland and take personal charge of the invasion. Following the Doctor's intervention, Hitler learned how to control the Timewyrm inside his mind and channelled his amplified powers towards the war effort. Under his augmented leadership, the setbacks in Poland were quickly resolved, after which Hitler returned to Germany to prepare for the showdown in the West.

The Black Coven had been examining the timeline of the war and produced a strategy to help the Nazis win and achieve global domination. The first concern was ironing out "disastrous errors of judgement" the Nazis would make until Western Europe, including Britain, was defeated. It was calculated that this would keep the United States out of the war, owing to the strength of their isolationist party. Subsequently, Germany would abide by the terms of the treaty with Russia until the grip of the former on Europe had been consolidated and campaigns were launched to develop a presence in Africa, Asia and the Far East. Rather than invade Russia, the Coven favoured provoking a war between the Americans and the Soviets. The Coven also developed an early nuclear reactor and were in the process of creating atomic weaponry to subdue the vast landmasses of America, Russia and China, which could more easily soak up radiation. With a German monopoly on nuclear weapons, there could be no apocalyptic retaliation. In addition, the Coven's Aryan Research Bureau developed a more extreme version of the SS training programme, creating an army of totally-obedient, fearless Aryan SS soldiers. Once the Nazis had conquered the world, the War Lords sought to accelerate Earth's technological development to the point where they could travel into space and mastermind a Nazi conquest of the galaxy and the universe.

Black Coven

The Black Coven prepares to sacrifice Ace. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).)

Proceeding with his ongoing investigation in the early hours of the war, the Seventh Doctor contacted Goering to warn him of treasonous activities being concocted at Drachensberg Castle. Goering left Berlin at the head of an armoured column and made for Drachensberg. Meanwhile, the Doctor and Ace discovered the War Lord operations but were quickly imprisoned in the castle. Kriegslieter selected Ace to offer in a ritualistic sacrifice. The sacrifice had no purpose other than to keep up appearances during a visit from Himmler. The Doctor informed Himmler that the Coven sought to put him in Hitler's place as Führer, which appalled the loyal Reichsführer but the proceeding of the sacrifice placated him. Buying time before Goering arrived, the Doctor offered to perform the ritual himself, then disrupted it at the last second with a canister of nitro-9a. He and Ace escaped just as Goering's column arrived and stormed the castle, engaging with Kriegslieter's SS troops in battle.

Although fearless, the SS troops did not have a sense of self-preservation and in practise proved ineffective in battle. The Doctor and Ace blasted open the castle gates with an anti-aircraft gun and Goering's column quickly overcame Kriegslieter and his forces. Hitler, having returned from Poland, arrived in a plane to discover what all the activity at the castle was about. The Doctor reported that Himmler and Goering had both uncovered and foiled a plot against Hitler by Kriegslieter's inner circle. Pleased, Hitler took Himmler and Goering back to Berlin. The Doctor and Ace remained behind to clean up the War Lord technology. However, Kriegslieter and his SS troops had survived, through a literal realisation of the old Prussian military expression of "corpse discipline". As zombies swarmed the castle, the Doctor destabilised the nuclear reactor. After calling on the TARDIS and escaping, the reactor exploded and obliterated the castle. A radioactive cloud hung over the area for days and nearby inhabitants died of radiation poisoning or moved away. As the world did not yet know what radiation was, the area surrounding Drachensberg remained abandoned and was believed to be cursed. The Black Coven's influence over the events of the war was thoroughly ended. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).)

After Hitler's intervention, the Polish campaign continued. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) Poland was quickly overwhelmed. The Polish Air Force, though a skilled organisation, did not last long against the Luftwaffe. (AUDIO: Their Finest Hour [+]John Dorney, Ravenous 1 (The Eighth Doctor Adventures: Ravenous, Big Finish Productions, 2018).) SS officer Brigadeführer Kraus earned the reputation during the invasion as the Butcher of Cracow. (PROSE: Illegal Alien [+]Mike Tucker and Robert Perry, adapted from Illegal Alien, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1997).)

In Britain, fearing attacks from German bombers, the government implemented the Black Out, the darkening of London's streets to deny enemy aircraft clear targets. (AUDIO: The Oncoming Storm [+]Phil Mulryne, The Churchill Years: Volume One (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2016).) Ultimately, the restrictions on car headlamps and street lights at night resulted in more deaths from traffic-related accidents than from air raids. Blackout regulations were relaxed thereafter. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) The BBC television service at Alexandra Palace was also shut down to prevent the Luftwaffe from homing in on its signal. (AUDIO: I Was Churchill's Double [+]Alan Barnes, The Churchill Years: Volume Two (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2018).) Elsie Jarman, the wife of Commodore William Jarman, was killed during an early air raid. Her body was never found. In a similar occurrence, Michael Fossbrook sent his brothers and his sister to Cornwall to keep them safe but they were killed in another air raid and it was weeks before their bodies were identified. Only Fossbrook and his mother were left alive in their family. Fossbrook joined the Royal Navy. (AUDIO: The Nemonite Invasion [+]David Roden, New Series Adventures Audio (BBC Audio, 2009).)

With his warnings about Nazi Germany having been proved to be true, Winston Churchill came back into favour again. (WC: Amy's History Hunt [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Finally returning to the Cabinet, he served as First Lord of the Admiralty and gained a secretary, Hetty Warner. He gained a reputation for working long hours into the night. (AUDIO: The Oncoming Storm [+]Phil Mulryne, The Churchill Years: Volume One (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2016).) The Admiralty viewed Churchill as an ideal Prime Minister and felt it was only a matter of time before he got the job, although they preferred it to happen sooner rather than later. (AUDIO: Human Conflict [+]Iain McLaughlin, The Churchill Years: Volume Two (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2018).)

The invasion of Poland lasted one month before the nation was crushed. (PROSE: Illegal Alien [+]Mike Tucker and Robert Perry, adapted from Illegal Alien, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1997).) Oskar Steinmann claimed that Poland, like Austria and Czechoslovakia, also welcomed the Germans and their strong Fascist rule, (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996)., AUDIO: Just War [+]Jacqueline Rayner, adapted from Just War (Lance Parkin), Bernice Summerfield: Single Releases (Big Finish Productions, 1999).) while the Soviet Union conquered the other half of the country. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) Some of the Polish forces managed to escape. Pilot Officer Jan Ostowicz, leaving behind his family and friends, fled to Romania, then France and made eventually made it to England. (AUDIO: Their Finest Hour [+]John Dorney, Ravenous 1 (The Eighth Doctor Adventures: Ravenous, Big Finish Productions, 2018).)

A number of skilled scientists also fled from mainland Europe to Great Britain at the beginning of the war, (PROSE: Losing the Audience [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) including Zsa Zsa Straus. (AUDIO: The Jabari Countdown [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Some scientists of Axis extraction were deemed too untrustworthy to take part in very sensitive British operations such as those at Bletchley Park. However, they were still recognised as possessing expertise too valuable to ignore and were held at the Aylesbury Grange Detention Centre. (PROSE: The Face of the Enemy [+]David A. McIntee, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1998).) Reich scientists, meanwhile, managed to break the sound barrier. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996)., AUDIO: Just War [+]Jacqueline Rayner, adapted from Just War (Lance Parkin), Bernice Summerfield: Single Releases (Big Finish Productions, 1999).)

The point of no return[]

In October, the Germans announced that they were willing to negotiate with the British and French, but the Allies refused, leading to the continuation of the war. Nazi propaganda argued that this meant the Allies were the true aggressors responsible for the start of the war and its continuation. Steinmann was among those who deployed this argument. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996)., AUDIO: Just War [+]Jacqueline Rayner, adapted from Just War (Lance Parkin), Bernice Summerfield: Single Releases (Big Finish Productions, 1999).) Colonel Fischer also argued the British were the aggressors for having declared war, while Germany's actions were brought about by a need to defend herself, a justification in which he genuinely believed. Churchill argued that the Allies were forced into action by Germany's aggression towards her neighbours. Both men claimed many people in their respective countries did not want war but were bound by necessity to fight. (AUDIO: Human Conflict [+]Iain McLaughlin, The Churchill Years: Volume Two (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2018).) Even after the beginning of the war, there were an number of people in Britain who wanted to make peace with Hitler. (PROSE: Inferno [+]Terrance Dicks, adapted from Inferno (Don Houghton), Target novelisations (Target Books, 1984).)

As in World War I, (TV: The War Games [+]Terrance Dicks and Malcolm Hulke, Doctor Who season 6 (BBC1, 1969)., AUDIO: The Mouthless Dead [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Scottish Highland regiments fought in the war as part of the British Army. (AUDIO: Resistance [+]Steve Lyons, The Companion Chronicles (Big Finish Productions, 2009)., The Forsaken [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Indian soldiers were also part of the British imperial forces, although some hoped their efforts would ultimately help India gain independence from British rule. (TV: Demons of the Punjab [+]Vinay Patel, Doctor Who series 11 (BBC One, 2018).) John Benton's father served in the British Army. (HOMEVID: Wartime [+]Andy Lane and Helen Stirling, Reeltime Pictures releases (Reeltime Pictures, 1988).) as did Arthur Ollis. (PROSE: The Three Doctors [+]Terrance Dicks, adapted from The Three Doctors (Bob Baker and Dave Martin), Target novelisations (Target Books, 1975).) Wilfred Mott lied about his age to join the British Army (AUDIO: The Nemonite Invasion [+]David Roden, New Series Adventures Audio (BBC Audio, 2009).) but never killed anyone during the war. (TV: The End of Time [+]Russell T Davies, Doctor Who Christmas Special 2009 and New Year Special 2010 (BBC One, 2009-2010).) Women, in some capacity, served in the British forces, while in Germany they were kept at home. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996)., Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991)., AUDIO: Just War [+]Jacqueline Rayner, adapted from Just War (Lance Parkin), Bernice Summerfield: Single Releases (Big Finish Productions, 1999).) On the British Home Front, the Women's Land Army performed important agricultural work. Propaganda posters encouraged everyone in the country to "Do Your Bit". (AUDIO: The Survivor [+]Tim Foley, Rage of the Time Lords (The War Master, Big Finish Productions, 2019).)

The coming of the war brought about the end of the Great Depression. The Twelfth Doctor noted that this "was hardly an improvement." (PROSE: A History of Humankind [+]Official Guides (BBC Children's Books, 2016).)

Kim Philby joined MI6 and found it to be very poorly organised. (PROSE: Endgame [+]Terrance Dicks, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).)

A very sentimental song from the war concerned nightingales singing on Berkeley Square. (PROSE: Doctor Who and the Dinosaur Invasion [+]Malcolm Hulke, adapted from Invasion of the Dinosaurs (Malcolm Hulke), Target novelisations (Target Books, 1976).)

The Germans developed magnetic naval mines which wreaked havoc on the Royal Navy. On 22 November 1939, a German bomber dropped a magnetic mine over the Thames Estuary. On 23 November, the Admiralty were able to recover the mine and study it, allowing them to devise countermeasures to its magnetism. At the same time, the British also discovered what they did not know was a Gallifreyan Augur's Stone. Upon touching the Stone, Abel Seaman Philips was granted vast amounts of knowledge. After a few minutes, he collapsed into a long coma. The Admiralty retrieved the Stone and placed it in protective storage in Admiralty House.

RATS (The Oncoming Storm)

A RATS in London in December 1939 disguised as a British Army soldier. (AUDIO: The Oncoming Storm [+]Phil Mulryne, The Churchill Years: Volume One (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2016).)

In December 1939, Reactive Automated Trail Seekers searched London for Augur's Stone. They intended to develop their own artificial intelligence using the Stone as a means of augmentation. They invaded Admiralty House as Churchill, Professor Frederick Lindemann and Lieutenant-Commander Sandy McNish examined the Stone. The Ninth Doctor and Hetty Warner joined them. During the raid, Hetty touched the Stone while trying to remove it. She lost consciousness and the RATS retrieved it. The overwhelming knowledge caused them to overload and explode. The Doctor managed to help Hetty regain consciousness. Considering that Britain's "darkest hour" was upon them all, Churchill expressed a willingness to touch the Stone to be able to view the whole of Europe like a chess board and consider where Hitler would strike next, be it the Scandinavian countries, France or Belgium. His staff convinced him this was too dangerous while the Doctor assured him he would win the war as he was. Subsequently, the Doctor took the Stone away from Earth. (AUDIO: The Oncoming Storm [+]Phil Mulryne, The Churchill Years: Volume One (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2016).)

By Christmastime, it became more difficult for people to obtain gifts such as toys and sweets. Joan Wright told her daughter Barbara that Santa Claus didn't have enough sweets for every child as a way to explain any shortages. Nevertheless, on Christmas Day, Barbara awoke to find a stocking filled with an apple, nuts, a peg doll and a large bag of barley sugar in spite of the wartime privations. (PROSE: All I Want for Christmas [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Supply shortages led to the growth of black market operations. (AUDIO: Casualties of War [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.)

Like the Romans, medieval warlords, knights, barbarians and nomadic tribes before them, the Nazis saw the strategic value of the ancient Kriegeskind Castle. Its high and remote location in the western German countryside made it an ideal stronghold from which to fend off an invasion of German territory. (AUDIO: Old Soldiers [+]James Swallow, The Companion Chronicles (Big Finish Productions, 2007).)

The Germans deployed an old First World War trick, whereby they imprinted a sector's troop movements on a soft-boiled egg using acetic acid. The egg was then boiled again so the shell absorbed the message but the imprint remained hidden on the white inside. The eggs were delivered across enemy checkpoints by women pretending to be civilians visiting relatives. The British had uncovered this trick numerous times during the First World War; it failed even then and the Germans knew it had failed, but refused to change it. The British were bemused to find that the Germans had employed the same tactic 25 years later with no alteration. In the first two years of the Second World War, the British caught German agents trying this deception tactic three times. The display taught British counter-intelligence important lessons about the rigidity of the thinking behind German espionage. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

Blitzkrieg[]
Main article: Blitzkrieg

In 1940, with a consistent failure to negotiate armistice terms, Hitler launched the Blitzkrieg, a "lightning war" against Western Europe, commanded by himself with Generals Heinz Guderian and Erwin Rommel at the front line. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) Blitzkrieg tactics risked problems with supply lines and the potential for attackers to find themselves cut off and surrounded if they pushed too far ahead. However, it was initially to prove very effective, with the Germans throwing every man, plane, ship, tank and armoured vehicle possible at the enemy in overwhelming force and speed to smash the Allied defences. (PROSE: Warlords of Utopia [+]Lance Parkin, Faction Paradox novels (Mad Norwegian Press, 2004).) The Germans conquered Denmark (AUDIO: Human Conflict [+]Iain McLaughlin, The Churchill Years: Volume Two (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2018).) and Norway. (AUDIO: Their Finest Hour [+]John Dorney, Ravenous 1 (The Eighth Doctor Adventures: Ravenous, Big Finish Productions, 2018).) In May, Britain, France, Belgium and Holland all faced the might of the German forces who benefited greatly from Hitler's command, augmented by his control of the Timewyrm. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) Among them was the British Expeditionary Force, consisting of nearly half a million men. (AUDIO: The Nemonite Invasion [+]David Roden, New Series Adventures Audio (BBC Audio, 2009).)

The Netherlands succumbed to the onslaught in just four days. Belgium too was overrun and very soon it became certain that France would follow. The German advance sparked a refugee crisis. Roads were blocked by people fleeing from Paris, leading the British to become trapped in traffic and burning away their fuel. Messerschmitts attacked the ground forces and killed strides of civilians in the process. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) Among the German forces were Parachute Divisions, who were considered among the elite. (PROSE: Autumn Mist [+]David A. McIntee, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).)

The Germans continued to steam roll the French and British armies back until the Allied forces were encircled. Guderian's Panzer Division pressed onwards, capturing the port towns of Abbeville, Boulogne and Calais. The Allied pocket was squeezed until all that remained under Allied control was one last port at the town of Dunkirk. The British forces found themselves at a critical state, teetering on the edge of total destruction as Guderian's Panzers closed in. It was not known to anyone at the time but the ensuing Battle of Dunkirk was ultimately to decide the outcome of the war.

As the Allies held out, their fate was decided one night late in the month at Felsennest, near Aachen, at Hitler's command post. The Seventh Doctor arrived and challenged the Timewyrm within Hitler's mind. Goading her with taunts of her inferiority and subservience to Hitler, the Timewyrm found the strength of will to escape and the Doctor fired her away through time, ending any influence she had on the course of the war. Losing his augmented abilities, Hitler's confidence was sapped and he desperately appealed to the Doctor for advice while he sat on the cusp of victory. The Doctor advised: "You must let the British Army go!" Reminding Hitler of his admiration for Britain and the British Empire, the Doctor argued that if the British Army survived and an invasion of England was postponed, Britain would eventually seek peace with Germany and the two nations could later commit their combined strength to a war against the Soviet Union. Convinced of the longer-term strategy, Hitler rang a field-telephone with a message for Guderian: "There is to be no further advance on Dunkirk." On Hitler's order, for reasons his generals never understood, the Germans' encircling advance was halted in one fatal last-minute delay. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).)

After learning the Germans had halted, the British calculated that they had been granted a gap of six days before the advance restarted. In London, Churchill called a tense meeting with Vice-Admiral Bertram Ramsay of the Royal Navy to discuss their options. The meeting produced Operation Dynamo, an ambitious evacuation effort which involved recruiting civilian boats and sailors to help ferry as much of the 400,000 besieged men as possible away from the beaches and onto the 42 available Royal Navy ships for transportation back to England. In the early hours of 26 May, Ramsay travelled to the White Cliffs of Dover, the hidden naval base of operations in the converted catacombs and war tunnels beneath Dover Castle. There, Ramsay began to get cold feet. He objected to the idea of sending untrained civilians into danger and contemplated disobeying the orders from London, finding himself facing an impossible situation. Unofficially, he cancelled Dynamo in favour of a different evacuation strategy.

As debate raged in Dover HQ, a Nemonite ship fell into the sea nearby, chased by the Tenth Doctor and Donna Noble. The Nemonite attacked a German U-boat carrying Zyklon B to Germany for use in the concentration camps. The Nemonite slaughtered the crew, save for one man, Engel, who sent out a distress call before the Nemonite infected him as a host. The British picked up the call and brought Engel back to the base. From there, the Nemonite found another host in Chaplain Clayton and its children swarmed the HQ. They infected the water system and shut down the base's generator.

Finding a temporary safe room, the Doctor realised the date and the time, 3 o'clock in the morning. Knowing Dynamo had to go ahead in half an hour, he convinced Ramsay to uncancel the operation. Power was returned to the base using the captured U-boat and the Nemonites in the water were killed with the Zyklon B. Ramsay and his men contacted HMS Brazen for assistance in the coordination. After reaffirmation from Churchill, Operation Dynamo began. Commodore Jarman, driven mad by the death of his family and humiliation in his career, attempted a mutiny and tried to overload the base's generator. He died from a high drop in a confrontation with Ramsay. The remaining Nemoites were lured onto the U-boat and blown up by Fossbrook in an act of self-sacrifice. Donna later informed his mother of his actions. (AUDIO: The Nemonite Invasion [+]David Roden, New Series Adventures Audio (BBC Audio, 2009).)

The evacuation efforts took place between 26 May and 4 June. (TV: Co-Owner of a Lonely Heart [+]Patrick Ness, Class television stories series 1 (BBC Three, 2016).) 850 civilian ships set off from the south coast of England towards Dunkirk. (AUDIO: The Nemonite Invasion [+]David Roden, New Series Adventures Audio (BBC Audio, 2009).) The First Doctor witnessed the events. (PROSE: Byzantium! [+]Keith Topping, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2001).)

The trapped soldiers organised themselves in long lines stretching towards the sea under constant threat from Stuka dive-bombers. Yet the German ground forces still held back. The Royal Navy, aided by the fleet of "little ships", (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) evacuated 338,000 men across the English Channel back to Britain, 100,000 of which came straight from the beaches, although the evacuation generated some controversy. (TV: Co-Owner of a Lonely Heart [+]Patrick Ness, Class television stories series 1 (BBC Three, 2016).) Corporal Gibbs, who was among those successfully evacuated along with Captain Clive Freeman, considered Dunkirk "a mess". (AUDIO: The Forsaken [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Churchill wrote that Dunkirk gave Britain "a bloody nose", from which the nation was still reeling a year later. (AUDIO: Human Conflict [+]Iain McLaughlin, The Churchill Years: Volume Two (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2018).)

Yet for all the controversy, the evacuation was to prove a decisive moment in the war. Kriegslieter had identified the halt at Dunkirk as a fatal mistake in Germany's war effort that required correction but after the events at Drachensberg, the Black Coven were no longer able to intervene. Rommel, in his secret diary, was very critical of Hitler's nervousness despite his success and called the order to halt "utter madness". Churchill reminded the British that "wars are not won by evacuations". Britain's position was still very precarious, but the British Army, the forces necessary to face the troubles ahead, had been safely brought back home. People in Britain viewed the deliverance from Dunkirk as a miracle. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).)

Italy entered the conflict and declared war on Britain. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

"The master of Europe"[]

France lasted less than a month before surrendering in the face of the German onslaught. Oskar Steinmann claimed that even Paris welcomed German rule. Victory marches were organised, passing the Eiffel Tower, the Louvre and Notre Dame in celebration. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) The French could only watch in horror. (PROSE: Angel of Mercy [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Once in Paris, the Nazis began pilfering works of art with which they decorated the lavish hotel rooms in which they took up residence. (PROSE: City of Death [+]James Goss, adapted from City of Death (David Agnew (writer)), BBC Books novelisations (BBC Books, 2015).) Despite the looting, Paris was largely spared from destruction, unlike other cities invaded by the Germans. Hitler visited the French capital some time after the occupation, during which various hotel wine cellars were emptied. Under Nazi rule, access to numerous luxuries was cut off. Available tea, for example, was comparable to mud. (AUDIO: The Dying Room [+]Lizzie Hopley, Torchwood (Big Finish Productions, 2017).) Some of the French began collaborating with the Germans. Bernard ran a business which served German officers as well as their wives. (PROSE: The Turing Test [+]Paul Leonard, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).) The French Resistance formed to combat the occupation, but innocent French civilians faced the threat of being murdered by the Gestapo in reprisals for disruption or harm caused by the Resistance. Executions took place each dawn. (AUDIO: The Scapegoat [+]Pat Mills, Eighth Doctor Adventures (Big Finish Productions, 2009).)

The occupying forced established a puppet government in southern France, which sat at the town of Vichy in the so-called Zone Libre or "free zone", (AUDIO: Resistance [+]Steve Lyons, The Companion Chronicles (Big Finish Productions, 2009).) with Marshal Pétain as the head of the government. (AUDIO: Scorched Earth [+]Chris Chapman, Main Range (Big Finish Productions, 2020).) However, the Germans remained the masters of Vichy France and, by extension, France's colonies in North Africa, including French Guinea (PROSE: The Turing Test [+]Paul Leonard, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).) and the city of Casablanca. (COMIC: As Time Goes By [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.)

The Germans turned their attention to the Channel Islands. The British government decided that it was no use trying to defend the islands as they were of no military value. Instead, they were demilitarised in the hopes of sparing them from German aggression. A "second Dunkirk" was organised to evacuate the inhabitants willing to leave. About one third of the population of Guernsey left but the rest stayed, being unable or unwilling to leave behind their homes or farms, and some out of a sense of patriotism. On the warm Friday evening of 28 June at 6:45 pm, Mayor Sherwill just finished delivering a speech intended to reassure the civilians when Luftwaffe aircraft appeared in the skies and began bombing the harbour. The island had no bomb shelters and so people in the vicinity of the harbour took shelter beneath vehicles. Many of them died as the Germans attacked the vans, which exploded in salmon-pink light. The Germans later expressed their regret for the people killed in the raid and claimed their intention had been to prevent the shipping of a consignment of tomatoes. Twenty-seven men and four women were killed, and forty more people wounded.

On Saturday, 29 June, the inhabitants were worried about the possibility of another raid or a gas attack. On Sunday, 30 June, three German planes landed at the airstrip but were quickly chased off by a Royal Air Force patrol. At 6:00 in the evening, the German returned in force and began circling above the island looking for ground defences that were no longer there. By 6:30, Major Lanz had assumed control of the island and he set up residence in the Royal Hotel. Much of the population hardly noticed until Lanz issued a declaration to that effect at a later point. The swastika was raised on every flagpole and tens of thousands of Nazi soldiers arrived in 178 low-flying Junkers. Private transport and British radio channels were outlawed and unlucky islanders were evicted from their homes or had their furniture looted for use by the invaders. A dozen German soldiers billeted in the Doras family's boarding house and paid them in worthless occupation marks; comparatively, the Doras family was treated quite fairly and were among the lucky ones.

The Germans claimed they had occupied Guernsey without firing a shot, ignoring the raid on the harbour two days prior, as well as the subsequent civilian executions carried out on people suspected of being spies or in reprisals for acts of resistance. The island's security was led by the ruthless SS Standardtenführer Joachim Wolff and Oberst Oskar Steinmann, head of the prisoner of war camp and the Luftwaffe zbV respectively. The British government issued an appeal, warning the island's remaining inhabitants not to risk their lives by committing acts of sabotage or resistance. On an island only twenty-four square miles in size, few acts of resistance, even passive resistance, could go undetected. Marcel Brossier was executed for cutting a telephone wire. One girl also killed herself after becoming pregnant with one of the hated occupiers. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

On Jersey, a force of time travelling Cybermen from the 30th century, which arrived in 1939, fled to mainland Britain when the Nazis invaded. The Cybermen left behind a sleeper force in the Le Mur Engineering factory, which the Nazis began studying. The fleeing Cybermen set up a new base of operations in the Peddler Electronic Engineering factory in London. Meanwhile, the discovery of the sleeper force led to a power struggle in Berlin. Himmler, Goering, Rudolf Hess and other leading Nazis all began vying for a position under Hitler that would give them control of the Cybermen. (PROSE: Illegal Alien [+]Mike Tucker and Robert Perry, adapted from Illegal Alien, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1997).)

The loss of the Channel Islands represented the first successful invasion of British homeland territory since the Battle of Hastings in 1066. The British assumed the Germans had taken the islands for propaganda purposes but the Germans soon commenced with a considerable build-up of air and naval forces. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

In the words of the Sixth Doctor, the British retreat from the continent left Hitler "the master of Europe," (AUDIO: The Ultimate Adventure [+]Terrance Dicks, adapted from The Ultimate Adventure (Terrance Dicks), The Stageplays (Big Finish Productions, 2008).) but in spite of all the odds now stacked against her, and perhaps even against her own common sense, Britain refused to stand down. (AUDIO: Their Finest Hour [+]John Dorney, Ravenous 1 (The Eighth Doctor Adventures: Ravenous, Big Finish Productions, 2018).) During time spent in wartime Britain, the Ninth Doctor reflected:

the German war machine is rolling up the map of Europe. Country after country, falling like dominoes. Nothing can stop it. Nothing. Until one, tiny, damp little island says no. No. Not here. A mouse in front of a lion.The Ninth Doctor [src]

Britain defiant[]

"We shall never surrender"[]
DW Series 5 Trailer 5 084-1-

Winston Churchill, as Prime Minister, vowed that Britain would never surrender. (TV: Victory of the Daleks [+]Mark Gatiss, Doctor Who series 5 (BBC One, 2010).)

With Europe under Nazi control by the summer of 1940, the Nazis began planning the conclusion of the Blitzkrieg in the form of Operation Sealion, the cross-Channel invasion and conquest of Britain. Documents found after the war detailed their intentions for the island. First was the swift arrest of civil servants, ex-officers, trade unionists, lawyers and MPs, as well as the liquidation of Jews, Gypsies and other "invalids". The German sympathiser, former King Edward VIII, would be restored to the throne with Wallis Simpson as his queen and a National Socialist Parliament would be appointed. Able-bodied males between the ages of 17 and 45 were to be forcibly enlisted in the so-called Voluntary Labour Force and deported to various places around the continent to construct the Nazi fortress. Blond-haired blue-eyed women would be rounded up and sent to Race Centres to have Aryan children with members of the SS. Those children would be educated in Germany and sent back to their home countries after they had grown into loyal Nazis. Valuable art, industry and artefacts would be relocated to Berlin. The remaining population would be left to rot, with possible replacement by a new Aryan population after it had died out. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).)

With few remaining allies, (WC: Amy's History Hunt [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) renewed calls were made for Britain to make peace with Hitler. (PROSE: Inferno [+]Terrance Dicks, adapted from Inferno (Don Houghton), Target novelisations (Target Books, 1984).) Winston Churchill became Prime Minister, (AUDIO: Their Finest Hour [+]John Dorney, Ravenous 1 (The Eighth Doctor Adventures: Ravenous, Big Finish Productions, 2018).) inheriting the critical situation. As fear of invasion swept the country, Churchill almost found himself on the verge of despair. The Doctor convinced him to fight on, adding it could lead to his "finest hour". The Sixth Doctor later recounted that Churchill, in response, "... brightened up, lit one of his big cigars, gave me a victory sign, and went out and won the war." (AUDIO: The Ultimate Adventure [+]Terrance Dicks, adapted from The Ultimate Adventure (Terrance Dicks), The Stageplays (Big Finish Productions, 2008).) Seeking new allies, he urged the isolationist United States to enter the war (WC: Amy's History Hunt [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) and declared Britain's intentions thus:

We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may he. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.Winston Churchill [src]

The British code word, "Cromwell", would signal the start of an invasion. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

Britain was not entirely alone. Through the British Empire, the British received assistance from Australia, (COMIC: The Instruments of War [+]Mike Collins, DWM Comics (Panini Comics, 2014-2015).) Canada, South Africa, (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) and India. (TV: Demons of the Punjab [+]Vinay Patel, Doctor Who series 11 (BBC One, 2018).)

Britons became worried about Nazi spies. (PROSE: The Curse of Fenric [+]Ian Briggs, adapted from The Curse of Fenric (Ian Briggs), Target novelisations (Target Books, 1990).) A British propaganda campaign warned "Careless Talk Costs Lives". Anyone accused of collaborating with the enemy was persecuted under the 1940 Treason Act. (AUDIO: The Survivor [+]Tim Foley, Rage of the Time Lords (The War Master, Big Finish Productions, 2019).) Train station names on the south coast were removed to confuse potential Nazi train-spotters. Trains were also unofficially reserved for military use and civilians making train journeys deemed unnecessary were frowned upon. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) German spies captured by the British were executed. British, French and Dutch spies captured by the Nazis were treated as military prisoners of war. Although Oskar Steinmann conceded that, under Reich policy, the spies were partially spared so that information could be extracted via interrogation, he argued that the fact that they were spared still meant the Germans were more civilised than the English. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996)., AUDIO: Just War [+]Jacqueline Rayner, adapted from Just War (Lance Parkin), Bernice Summerfield: Single Releases (Big Finish Productions, 1999).) The Germans attempted to convince British prisoners of war potentially sympathetic to fascism to switch sides and join the Britischer Freikorps (British Free Corps). Hardly any British prisoners ever accepted the offer. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).)

Sir Oswald Mosley, the founder of the British Union of Fascists, was imprisoned for the duration of the war. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) London builder's merchant and Association leader George Ratcliffe spoke out against Britain's part in the war, believing the country should instead be allied to Nazi Germany. He was also imprisoned, (TV: Remembrance of the Daleks [+]Ben Aaronovitch, Doctor Who season 25 (BBC1, 1988).) under Regulation 18b. (PROSE: Remembrance of the Daleks [+]Ben Aaronovitch, adapted from Remembrance of the Daleks (Ben Aaronovitch), Target novelisations (Target Books, 1990).) Sir Davenport Finch was suspected of outright collaboration and Churchill favoured locking him up. This proved difficult because of his family's high-standing, however, and so he was simply placed under house arrest in his Sussex manor, under the watch of British officer Hegley. (AUDIO: Operation: Hellfire [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.)

Sylvia O'Donnell had married a Waffen-SS member named Heinrich after they met in Germany in 1933. He took his wife's surname due to the rise of anti-German sentiment. Sylvia remembered a lot of friendly correspondence between Britain and Germany before the war and believed Churchill had no business involving Britain in the conflict, eventually prompting her to move to Kenya. (AUDIO: A Thousand Tiny Wings [+]Andy Lane, Main Range (Big Finish Productions, 2010).) Though she herself was British-born and grew up in Britain, Elizabeth Klein received abuse and suspicion during the war because her parents were German. She came to favour a German victory. (AUDIO: Colditz [+]Steve Lyons, Main Range (Big Finish Productions, 2001).)

The Home Guard, made up of civilian volunteers, was established to defend the country from German invasion. Members such as Tom Wintringham also believed it should be used to launch a socialist revolution against the government if any attempt was made to make peace with Germany. (PROSE: Losing the Audience [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) The Home Guard were stationed at potentially vulnerable coastal areas and important military installations. Robin Sanford was denied active service due to a hereditary heart defect but he was made a private in the Home Guard at the age of 18. (PROSE: The Crawling Terror [+]Mike Tucker, BBC New Series Adventures (BBC Books, 2014).) Hidden bases full of supplies and weapons were established so British resistance groups could go into hiding and continue operating against the Germans in the event of an invasion (PROSE: Made of Steel [+]Terrance Dicks, Quick Reads (BBC Books, 2007).) Four citadels were build under the surface of London, intended to allow the British government to continue operations if the worst happened. (AUDIO: The Fifth Citadel [+]James Goss, Counter-Measures (Big Finish Productions, 2013).)

At the recommendation of Admiral Arthur Kendrick, the British founded the Scientific Intelligence Division (SID). The first British organisation to (officially) combine the work of British Intelligence officers with scientists, its task was to piece together as much information as possible based on all the intelligence retrieved. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

In France, the Reynard Resistance Group retrieved information about the invasion plans and intended to send them to the British. The Gestapo under Colonel Reiner began hunting down the group, which was infiltrated by a German agent named Ilse, posing as a Frenchwoman named Yvette. The Third Doctor was arrested by the Gestapo at this time but turned his interrogation around when he subjected Professor Schmidt to a dose of his own truth serum and pretended to be an inspector working on behalf of the Führer. Afterwards, the Doctor made contact with the Reynard Group.

When the Reynard Group prepared to send their message to the British, Isle warned Reiner and the leaders were arrested. However, the Doctor helped them escape their cell and they kidnapped Schmidt, forcing him to contact Reiner and falsely inform him that the message had not been sent. With the Gestapo now believing them to be dealt with, the Reynard Group then went back into hiding with Schmidt as their prisoner, planning to send him and his serum to London. Reynard claimed he believed Britain was sufficiently prepared to repel the Germans, who would be "in for a nasty shock". (COMIC: Who is the Stranger [+]Dennis Hooper, TVA comic stories (Polystyle, 1973).)

The Battle of Britain[]
Main article: Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain

RAF Spitfires engaged in the Battle of Britain. (AUDIO: Their Finest Hour [+]John Dorney, Ravenous 1 (The Eighth Doctor Adventures: Ravenous, Big Finish Productions, 2018).)

Britain also enjoyed one clear advantage over Germany: strength at sea. The Royal Navy's superiority over the Kriegsmarine in the English Channel had succeeded in delaying the Germans from launching Operation Sealion. (AUDIO: Their Finest Hour [+]John Dorney, Ravenous 1 (The Eighth Doctor Adventures: Ravenous, Big Finish Productions, 2018).) Before it could be resumed, the Germans saw it as essential to defeat the Royal Air Force and achieve air superiority. (PROSE: The Whoniverse [+]George Mann and Justin Richards, BBC Books (2016).) As a result, in the summer of 1940, (PROSE: Remembrance of the Daleks [+]Ben Aaronovitch, adapted from Remembrance of the Daleks (Ben Aaronovitch), Target novelisations (Target Books, 1990). the focus of the war moved from the ground and sea to the sky in what developed into the Battle of Britain. (AUDIO: Their Finest Hour [+]John Dorney, Ravenous 1 (The Eighth Doctor Adventures: Ravenous, Big Finish Productions, 2018).)

The Luftwaffe, under Hermann Goering, (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) began the battle by attacking British military targets for a successive number of weeks, which had to be defended by the RAF. (AUDIO: Their Finest Hour [+]John Dorney, Ravenous 1 (The Eighth Doctor Adventures: Ravenous, Big Finish Productions, 2018).) British Spitfire and Hurricane pilots fought against German Messerschmitts, Junkers 88s, Stukas and Dorniers. (PROSE: /Carpenter/Butterfly/Baronet/ [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Other British aircraft types included the Wellington, the Whitley, the Hampden and the Blenheim. (PROSE: Warlords of Utopia [+]Lance Parkin, Faction Paradox novels (Mad Norwegian Press, 2004).)

The British were aided by new secret technologies such as radar and Radio Direction Finding (RDF). These were incorporated into the national air-defence system. More "crude" but effective techniques also gave the RAF an edge in the air war: microphones set up on the coast allowed the British to better hear the sound of incoming planes. (PROSE: A History of Humankind [+]Official Guides (BBC Children's Books, 2016).)

One British aerodrome was located one mile away from the village of Cragwell in West Country. (COMIC: Insect [+]Roger Noel Cook, TVC comic stories (Polystyle, 1970).) Another was in Culverton. (PROSE: Last of the Gaderene [+]Mark Gatiss, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).) A further aerodrome was located at RAF Shandon outside Helensburgh in Scotland. It lay largely beyond the range of the Luftwaffe and served as a training school. (PROSE: The Face of the Enemy [+]David A. McIntee, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1998).) An ideal tactic for aerial combat was for a pilot to fly at the enemy with the sun behind them so their opponents were blinded. (PROSE: The Devil Goblins from Neptune [+]Martin Day and Keith Topping, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1997).)

While trapped on Earth, an amnesiatic Eighth Doctor saw the desperation of Britain's position and tried to join the RAF. He was rejected as he lacked nationality papers proving he was a British subject. (PROSE: The Turing Test [+]Paul Leonard, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).)

Alec Whistler fought for the RAF in the battle. (PROSE: Last of the Gaderene [+]Mark Gatiss, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).) Rachel Jensen was also involved in some action during this time. (PROSE: Remembrance of the Daleks [+]Ben Aaronovitch, adapted from Remembrance of the Daleks (Ben Aaronovitch), Target novelisations (Target Books, 1990).) Polish exiles in Britain also joined the struggle. However, because of the poor performance of the Polish Air Force during the Invasion of Poland, their counterparts in the RAF initially did not regard the Poles highly, limiting their activity. Yet many of the Poles were very well trained, determined to prove their worth, and hungry for revenge.

In August, the Heliyon, whose different blocs were at war, travelled to the war-torn Earth. Under Heliyon rules of war, the two blocs chose sides at random from another planet that was already at war; the outcome of that planet's war decided the outcome of the Heliyon war. Additional Heliyon interference in those wars was banned by Heliyon Prime but fanatics attempted to influence the outcome of the Second World War in their favour by preying on the RAF. As they engaged the Germans, several British pilots were killed by the cloaked Heliyon ship.

On 27 August, Churchill contacted the Eighth Doctor (long after escaping his Earth exile) via the TARDIS telephone, seeking help with the mysterious alien force threatening the RAF aircraft engaging the Luftwaffe. Without the RAF forces to spare to assist in the investigation, the Doctor and Liv Chenka enlisted the help of Polish Pilot Officers Jan Ostowicz and Wilhelm Rozycki and equipped their planes with force fields. During the aerial investigation, Liv and Rozycki found themselves briefly abducted by the Heliyon, who were worried by the Doctor's technology. The Heliyon ship was drawn back towards the RAF base for an attack. The rest of the Polish squadron was deployed against it. The Heliyon were fought off and began heading in the direction of London. The Doctor, Ostowicz, Liv and Churchill pursued them, with Churchill ordering the British squadrons to join the Poles in the fray. Losing, the Heliyon ship attempted a kamikaze attack on the city but Heliyon Prime intervened and arrested the fanatics on the charge of war crimes.

In recognition of their efforts against the Heliyon, the Poles were allowed to engage more fully in the Battle of Britain the next day. On the night of 28 August, Ostowicz and Rozycki battled the Luftwaffe. Rozycki was shot down and killed. Ostowicz was saddened by his friend's death but acknowledge that he died doing what he wished and fighting for good. (AUDIO: Their Finest Hour [+]John Dorney, Ravenous 1 (The Eighth Doctor Adventures: Ravenous, Big Finish Productions, 2018).)

Both sides suffered heavy casualties (AUDIO: Their Finest Hour [+]John Dorney, Ravenous 1 (The Eighth Doctor Adventures: Ravenous, Big Finish Productions, 2018).) but ultimately the British and were victorious. (PROSE: /Carpenter/Butterfly/Baronet/ [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) The Spitfires became a much-celebrated aircraft and largely replaced the less manoeuvrable Hurricanes as the RAF's main fighter planes. However, Hurricanes shot down more German planes in 1940 than all other British aircraft combined. Hitler never forgave the Luftwaffe for their failure. (PROSE: The Shadow in the Glass [+]Justin Richards and Stephen Cole, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2001).)

Unbreaking British resolve[]

The extra-dimensional Shakers approached the desperate British government, offering aid. A pact was agreed upon and Operation Shaker was planned out. The Shakers would conduct a secret war against the Germans; the British offered them India as Lebensraum in return, with no intention of keeping the promise. The men of the South Mendip Auxiliary Unit, who had been trained to fight a guerilla war against the Germans, were also part of the Operation. Scientists, meanwhile, studied ways to defeat the Shakers for when they were no longer needed. Ultimately, the invasion never came and Operation Shaker was never put into full effect. The Shakers were trapped in the fabric of the BBC Broadcasting House by factions of the British Government after the threat of German invasion passed. (PROSE: Losing the Audience [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.)

The Home Army Operational Corps was formed largely in secret to assist the Allies. Enjoying wide executive powers, the Corps could be considered above the law, which Churchill made great use of. (PROSE: The Dogs of War [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Edward Travers provided scientific assistance to the Home-Army Fourth Operational Corps (PROSE: One Cold Step [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) after he was recruited by Toby Kinsella in 1941. (PROSE: Night of the Intelligence [+]Andy Frankham-Allen, Lethbridge-Stewart novels (Candy Jar Books, 2017).)

The government seized fences and railings around Britain because of a desperate need of various metals required to make guns, ships and bombs. A number of buildings never had their railing replaced, although some metal gates deemed to be of excellent workmanship were spared. (PROSE: Doctor Who and the Sea-Devils [+]Malcolm Hulke, adapted from The Sea Devils (Malcolm Hulke), Target novelisations (Target Books, 1974).)

In Scotland, chemical weapons testing took place in a loch in Inverness. All the fish in the loch died and it remained emptied of wildlife for decades, with even birds avoiding it, earning it the name of Dead Loch. (PROSE: Harry Sullivan's War [+]Ian Marter, The Companions of Doctor Who (Target Books, 1986).) Some ships were wrecked during the war off a small British island believed to be cursed. (PROSE: Scratchman [+]Tom Baker and James Goss, adapted from Doctor Who Meets Scratchman, BBC Books novelisations (BBC Books, 2019).)

The Royal Navy continued to engage in operations in the Mediterranean Sea. Chas Baxter joined the Royal Navy in 1940 at the age of 22 and served in this theatre while aboard HMS Audacity. He was gifted a knitted bobble hat that Christmas by the Second Doctor and Jamie McCrimmon, who Chas believed to be Santa Claus and his helper. However, he did not wear the hat much in the Mediterranean climate. (PROSE: The Christmas Presence [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Navy personnel communicated with each other through speaking tubes, essentially a piece of hosepipe with a whistle screwed on the end. (PROSE: The Time Travellers [+]Simon Guerrier, Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2005).) The Mediterranean became closed to peacetime shipping. Convoys bound for Egypt or North Africa had to do so via the Atlantic Ocean and the West African Coast. Freetown in Sierra Leone became the main port of call. The area became endangered after Charles de Gaulle's assault on Dakar. (PROSE: The Turing Test [+]Paul Leonard, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).)

As the months went by, the war settled into a stalemate. Although she could boast a powerful army and air force, Germany's navy was not strong enough to launch an invasion of England. Conversely, Britain enjoyed naval superiority and strength in the air was rapidly expanding, but she had nothing close to the forces necessary to take the fight back to continental Europe. As the winter season drew near, the Nazis temporarily shelved Operation Sealion, claiming they were observing a Christmas truce, but the British expected preparations to resume in the spring of the following year. Oskar Steinmann claimed that London would be taken in one day after German paratroopers descended on the city come the invasion. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

Churchill became dead set on defeating the Nazis. On numerous occasions, he attempted to steal the Doctor's TARDIS, (AUDIO: Their Finest Hour [+]John Dorney, Ravenous 1 (The Eighth Doctor Adventures: Ravenous, Big Finish Productions, 2018)., TV: Victory of the Daleks [+]Mark Gatiss, Doctor Who series 5 (BBC One, 2010).) even ordering the British Army to retrieve it if possible, with the offer of a reward to anyone who succeeded. (PROSE: The Crawling Terror [+]Mike Tucker, BBC New Series Adventures (BBC Books, 2014).) He once expressed that, "If Hitler invaded Hell, I would give a favourable reference to the Devil." (TV: Victory of the Daleks [+]Mark Gatiss, Doctor Who series 5 (BBC One, 2010).)

The Blitz[]

Main article: The Blitz
Rain of destruction[]
Luftwaffe

The Luftwaffe bomb London during the Blitz. (TV: Victory of the Daleks [+]Mark Gatiss, Doctor Who series 5 (BBC One, 2010).)

Beginning on 7 September 1940, the Germans launched the sustains and strategic bombing campaign of British cities which became known as the Blitz. (PROSE: A History of Humankind [+]Official Guides (BBC Children's Books, 2016).) Major towns and cities across the UK suffered under an intensive aerial bombardment. The attacks occurred nearly every night and necessitated the blotting out of every light to deny the Luftwaffe a target. When possible, the bombers were guided by moonlight. (PROSE: The Time Travellers [+]Simon Guerrier, Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2005).) Much of the urban population spent the night in bomb shelters or underground train stations. (PROSE: Illegal Alien [+]Mike Tucker and Robert Perry, adapted from Illegal Alien, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1997).)

Woman and children were evacuated from large cities to the safety of the countryside to escape the bombing, (TV: The Doctor, the Widow and the Wardrobe [+]Steven Moffat, Doctor Who Christmas Special 2011 (BBC One, 2011).) although not every parent was willing to send their children away. (PROSE: Tell Me You Love Me [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) A number of children from London were sent to Wales. (WC: Alien File: Eve [+]Sarah Jane's Alien Files.) Ross Grant experienced some of the horrors of the Blitz before he was evacuated to Kingsdown in Kent. (PROSE: The Face of the Enemy [+]David A. McIntee, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1998).) When Sally Northspoon travelled to the small country town of Thisis during the war, she found it was largely unaffected by the Blitz. (PROSE: Verdigris [+]Paul Magrs, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).) The village of Bramfield was also untouched, with only the occasional GI passing through during the course of the war, prior to the construction of Bramfield New Town. (AUDIO: The Hidden Realm [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.)

Shoreditch was hit particularly badly by the Luftwaffe, (PROSE: Ash [+]Trevor Baxendale, Short Trips: A Universe of Terrors (Short Trips, 2003).) as were Cheapside, (PROSE: The Time Travellers [+]Simon Guerrier, Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2005).) Ironmonger Row, (PROSE: Amorality Tale [+]David Bishop, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2002).) Shad Thames, (PROSE: Resurrection of the Daleks [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) and Hampshire. Despite the danger of the bombs, Princess Elizabeth, the future Queen, refused to leave London. Some shops such as Henrik's stayed open for business despite bomb damage. (AUDIO: Lost and Found [+]Penelope Faith, Short Trips (Big Finish Productions, 2016).) One woman and her husband resolved to continue working in their shop as normal despite waking up on 14 November 1940 to find the building destroyed. (PROSE: Illegal Alien [+]Mike Tucker and Robert Perry, adapted from Illegal Alien, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1997).) After a heavy raid on Coventry, rumours began to circulate which claimed Churchill knew the attack was going to happen but kept quiet in order to protect a secret code. (PROSE: This Town Will Never Let Us Go [+]Lawrence Miles, Faction Paradox (Mad Norwegian Press, 2003).) Churchill later admitted to feeling guilty about the fate of Coventry. (AUDIO: Hounded [+]Alan Barnes, The Churchill Years: Volume One (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2016).) Totterdown, a district of Bristol, was almost levelled by the Blitz. (PROSE: Rags [+]Mick Lewis, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2001).) Southampton, Manchester, Liverpool, Sheffield and Hull were among other cities to suffer under the Luftwaffe. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

Goodge Street Fortress was constructed near Goodge Street tube station during the war as a secret government HQ. (PROSE: Doctor Who and the Web of Fear [+]Terrance Dicks, adapted from The Web of Fear (Mervyn Haisman and Henry Lincoln), Target novelisations (Target Books, 1976).) Dozens of such tunnels were built for the same purpose throughout London. (AUDIO: Amorality Tale [+]David Bishop, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2002).) The government continued to meet and operate in the relative safety of the Cabinet War Rooms, (TV: Victory of the Daleks [+]Mark Gatiss, Doctor Who series 5 (BBC One, 2010).) although Churchill regularly ventured up at the rooftops at night accompanied by various advisers to observe the bombs pounding London which caused the population so much suffering. (PROSE: The Shadow in the Glass [+]Justin Richards and Stephen Cole, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2001).) Ack-ack guns and barrage balloons sprang up to defend Britain from the Luftwaffe. (PROSE: Come Friendly Bombs... [+]Dave Owen, Short Trips: Past Tense (Short Trips, 2004).)

The First Doctor and Susan were present in London during an air raid relatively early in their travels. Susan compared it to a Zeppelin raid they had witnessed in the previous war. (AUDIO: The Alchemists [+]Ian Potter, The Companion Chronicles (Big Finish Productions, 2013).)

At 8:47 p.m. on 12 October 1940, the New Regency Theatre, owned and operated by the late Henry Gordon Jago in the 1890s, was destroyed in the Blitz, as was the hotel next to it. (AUDIO: Swan Song [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) The church of St Barnabas in Portsmouth was also destroyed. (PROSE: The Eye of the Giant [+]Christopher Bulis, Virgin Missing Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) Mabel Carter was killed during the early stages of the Blitz. (PROSE: Pass It On [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) A woman named Joan living in London's East End was caught in an air raid one night and stayed in a friend's shelter instead of returning home. Her home was bombed that night and her husband Bill was killed. (PROSE: Come Friendly Bombs... [+]Dave Owen, Short Trips: Past Tense (Short Trips, 2004).)

Verdigris, seeking to manipulate the Meercocks into eventually launching an ill-conceived invasion of Earth, sent the Meercocks fictional literature from a London library as sources of information. The Meercocks believed their spy, Leonard Bast (also one of Verdigris' fabrications), had smuggled these books while moving them to safety underground to protect them from the Blitz. (PROSE: Verdigris [+]Paul Magrs, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).)

Barbara Wright was told stories about German bomber pilots who embarked on raids with enough English money with them to live on if they were shot down and stranded in Britain. It was believed Germans never came over with change, so pub owners kept on the lookout for any men who purchased a drink with pound notes instead of change. (PROSE: The Time Travellers [+]Simon Guerrier, Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2005).)

During one air raid, a Dalek emerged through a time portal in London where it briefly engaged local soldiers before being destroyed. (AUDIO: The Time of the Daleks [+]Justin Richards, Main Range (Big Finish Productions, 2002).)

Alien encounters and uncompromising wills[]

In November, the Cyber-Leader which led the group of Cybermen away from the Channel Islands was damaged by a bomb and went mad, committing a series of murders around London's East End to sustain itself. The Seventh Doctor used the Blitz to destroy this force of Cybermen by lighting up the Peddler Electronic Engineering factory, making it an easy target for the Luftwaffe. The following day, the Doctor travelled to Jersey to destroy the remaining Cybermen in the Le Mur compound and put an end to the Nazi research. After the Doctor departed, Patrick Mullen and Cody McBride discovered a third, much larger dormant Cyberman army hiding in the sewers beneath London in preparation for a later invasion. (PROSE: Illegal Alien [+]Mike Tucker and Robert Perry, adapted from Illegal Alien, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1997).)

Manchester was struck in December. The Free Trade Hall and the surrounding area was flattened. (AUDIO: The Vardan Invasion of Mirth [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.)

Alistair Gordon Lethbridge-Stewart spent one night in a public shelter in Eaton Square. (PROSE: The Ghosts of N-Space [+]Barry Letts, adapted from The Ghosts of N-Space (Barry Letts), Virgin Missing Adventures (Virgin Books, 1995).) Ian Chesterton grew up in Blitzed London (AUDIO: The Time Museum [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) and came to recognise the sounds of falling bombs very well. (PROSE: The Time Travellers [+]Simon Guerrier, Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2005).) Barbara Wright was also a young girl at the time. Her father fought in the war and was killed close to Christmastime of 1940. Other accounts make passing references to Barbara's father being alive when she was older. (PROSE: Venusian Lullaby [+]Paul Leonard, Virgin Missing Adventures (Virgin Books, 1994)., The Face of the Enemy [+]David A. McIntee, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1998)., Byzantium! [+]Keith Topping, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2001).) When travelling with the Doctor and Susan much later in their lives, Ian and Barbara arrived in Blitzed London again on Christmas Eve, 1940, and spent the night in a public shelter in Hazel Street as air raid hit nearby Gable Street. On Christmas Day, they discovered the Bansharai, creatures who fed on love to survive and took the forms of dead or separated loved ones, including Barbara's father, to do so. The Bansharai departed once they reunited as a family. (PROSE: Tell Me You Love Me [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.)

On Sunday, 29 December, London was struck by the worst raid of the Blitz. The bombing caused a firestorm that earned the name of the Second Great Fire of London. Paternoster Row was destroyed that night. (PROSE: A History of Humankind [+]Official Guides (BBC Children's Books, 2016).)

Although the BBC television service was shut down in 1939 to avoid attracting the Luftwaffe, the transmitter above the studio at Alexandra Palace was put to use jamming the Germans' guidance systems. (AUDIO: I Was Churchill's Double [+]Alan Barnes, The Churchill Years: Volume Two (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2018).)

John Ellis served as a fireman during the war, whilst Diane Holmes ferried planes. (TV: Out of Time [+]Catherine Tregenna, Torchwood series 1 (BBC Three, 2006).)

For a short time on both sides, the Cardiff rift linked January 1941 and the 21st century, allowing Jack Harkness and Toshiko Sato of Torchwood Three to meet with the original Captain Jack Harkness and to cause suspicions in the members of the Torchwood Institute about Bilis Manger. On the day following their meeting, the original Jack Harkness would inevitably be killed in a firefight. The present-day Jack did not interfere with his final fate to preserve the timeline. (TV: Captain Jack Harkness [+]Catherine Tregenna, Torchwood series 1 (BBC Three, 2007).) After adopting the real Captain Jack's name, Torchwood's Jack Harkness would become involved in the war, and claimed to have spent a number of weeks as a prisoner of war aboard a German U-boat. (PROSE: Plant Life [+]Trevor Baxendale, Torchwood The Official Magazine Yearbook (Torchwood, 2008).)

Famous pilot Amy Johnson died flying for the RAF Auxiliary Service in the war. (COMIC: A Wing and a Prayer [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Peter Kane's father, Jason Kane's grandfather, was also killed during the war. (AUDIO: Just War [+]Jacqueline Rayner, adapted from Just War (Lance Parkin), Bernice Summerfield: Single Releases (Big Finish Productions, 1999).)

Jimmy Mayhew and his friend Dennis lost their homes and many loved ones when their street was bombed. Following this, they joined the Royal Navy. (AUDIO: Dark Convoy [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.)

The Ninth Doctor and Rose Tyler landed in London during the Blitz while pursuing a Chula ambulance through time, lured there by Jack Harkness. The nanogenes inside attempted to heal a dead child named Jamie, killed while wearing a gas mask, but they did not know what a human was and resurrected Jamie as a zombie with a gas masked face. This acted as a plague, spread to others through touch. The nanogenes cured the plague when Jamie found his mother Nancy and repaired the human DNA. (TV: The Empty Child [+]Steven Moffat, Doctor Who series 1 (BBC One, 2005)./The Doctor Dances [+]Steven Moffat, Doctor Who series 1 (BBC One, 2005).) After his travels with the Ninth Doctor, Jack Harkness later returned to the period of the war and was killed, after which his immortality granted to him by the Bad Wolf revived him again. (TV: Utopia [+]Russell T Davies, Doctor Who series 3 (BBC One, 2007).)

The Mayfield Terrace was mostly destroyed after it was struck by two bombs, as well as an unreported German Wunderwaffe. The weapon was intended to spread hate by awakening the tribal instincts of young people, to prepare the way for an invasion, but it never activated. A German Jewish refugee named Rosa, who owned a cafe on the street, saw the weapon fall and mistook it for a third bomb. She was mistreated by the locals who blamed her for the bombing. (AUDIO: Hunters of Earth [+]Nigel Robinson, Destiny of the Doctor (Big Finish Productions, 2013).)

Donna's father, an American, went to England during the war and witnessed the bombing of the cities and the deaths of even young children. (PROSE: Goodwill Toward Men [+]Shaun Lyon, Short Trips: A Christmas Treasury (Short Trips short stories, 2004).) The President of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, made efforts to keep the US out of the war. Cody McBride nevertheless felt that America was capable of dealing with Germany if hostilities began between the two nations. (PROSE: Illegal Alien [+]Mike Tucker and Robert Perry, adapted from Illegal Alien, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1997).) In spite of the bleak situation, the Eleventh Doctor assured Churchill that the whole world was watching Britain and her struggle. Her acts of resistance provided "a beacon of hope" to the conquered and vulnerable peoples of the world. (TV: Victory of the Daleks [+]Mark Gatiss, Doctor Who series 5 (BBC One, 2010).)

St Paul's Cathedral was hit by a 500-pound bomb which knocked a hole in the roof and exploded over the high alter. However, the building absorbed most of the blast and survived. (PROSE: The Time Travellers [+]Simon Guerrier, Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2005).)

Churchill visited a number of the blitzed areas, filling the affected communities with a sense of patriotism and pride. (PROSE: Amorality Tale [+]David Bishop, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2002).) For all the death and destruction, the Blitz created a unity of purpose among the British people and hardened their spirits with a resolve to see the war through to the end. (PROSE: A History of Humankind [+]Official Guides (BBC Children's Books, 2016).)

The Hartung Project[]
Main article: Hartung Project

In February 1941, the Luftwaffe moved their attention away from London to other English cities, targeting British war industries. This granted London some respite but by the same token condemned other people to suffer and die. Churchill continued to feel the weight of the situation on his shoulders, but he continued to marvel at the persistence of the British public's morale. (AUDIO: Human Conflict [+]Iain McLaughlin, The Churchill Years: Volume Two (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2018).)

Although it looked like London had received a respite, bombs still continued to hit the capital late in the month. In the late hours of 1 March, a large number of German bombers took off from the Channel Islands and struck London again. However, the bomber fleet was largely a cover for Emil Hartung as he piloted his prototype stealth bomber Hugin, which caused the vast majority of the damage that night with great accuracy. Hugin's path hit Greenwich, Bermondsey, the City of London and Regent's Park before turning around and striking Paddington, Soho and Southwark, remaining undetected by British radar all the while. Almost every bomb hit something important.

Hugin along with her sister aircraft Munin were more advanced than aircraft than should have been possible in the period. The subjects of the Hartung Project, Hartung had completed the testing phase on 28 February after over four years of work. The SID discovered evidence of the project and embarked on a mission to find out more information, sabotage the project and potentially help Hartung to defect, by exploiting possible anti-Nazi sentiments on account of his partial Jewish heritage. However, Hugin crashed on return to Guernsey and exploded in a crash caused by a fault with the fuel systems. Hartung died just after midnight on 2 March.

The Tomato Network operating on the Channel Islands and the northern French coast sought to gain intelligence on the project for the SID but on 4 March, the network was compromised by the Germans who killed all 30 agents. On 5 March, Admiral Kendrick met with the War Cabinet and they agreed to RAF bombing operations against the Luftwaffe zbV HQ in the northern French coastal town of Granville in the hopes of destroying Hartung's work, regardless of civilian casualties. After 6:30 pm, RAF bombers breached the sea wall and 30 German troops were killed when the fuel stores erupted, and a whole squadron of Messerschmitts, along with two dozen pilots, were bombed at the nearby airfield before they could get off the ground, granting the British air supremacy. The town was hit with incendiary bombs. Even a bomb shelter in the park was hit, killing everybody inside. The townhouse used as Luftwaffe zbV's HQ, built in 1715 by Jean Lassurance, was reduced to a crater. The raid lasted for three hours until the RAF returned home at 9:30 pm without losing a single plane. Every target had been destroyed. Bomber Command announced a 100% success. 1,450 people were killed, including 30 German officers.

Munin, however, was based in a nearby hidden airbase and survived the raid. In another attempt to bring the British to the negotiating table, Standartenführer Joachim Wolff deliberately allowed himself to be captured by the SID to relay the British an ultimatum from the German government: Britain was to reach an agreement with Germany whereby the two nations would cease hostilities on equal terms and join together to face the Soviet Union. The only stipulations were that France be demilitarised, troops be withdrawn from Iraq and armistice terms be concluded with Italy. Failure to reach an agreement would result in the destruction of English cities on the south coast by a new German weapon (Munin). The Germans target was Southampton, with a raid planned before the British could prepare the city's defences. Unwilling to take risks, Admiral Kendrick contacted the Cabinet and announced "Cromwell", the German invasion. Church bells and air raid sirens rang throughout London and the south coast to warn the population.

The project was thwarted ahead of the Southampton raid on 6 March. With Bernice Summerfield and Roz Forrester working on intelligence gathering, Munin was stolen by the Seventh Doctor and Chris Cwej, who blew it up by exploiting the same fuel weaknesses which destroyed Hugin. Their mission had started after the Doctor realised he had given Hartung information from the future when they met in Cairo in 1936. With the threat of the superbomber neutralised, the invasion alert was called off and another planned RAF raid on Guernsey was aborted. Wolff, in British captivity, took his own life after the Doctor shook his faith in Nazism and Fascism. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

Much of the same event was relived by Bernice Summerfield along with Jason Kane, (AUDIO: Just War [+]Jacqueline Rayner, adapted from Just War (Lance Parkin), Bernice Summerfield: Single Releases (Big Finish Productions, 1999).) with both versions appearing to have taken place. (PROSE: Paydirt [+]Lance Parkin, A Life of Surprises (Bernice Summerfield short stories, Big Finish Productions, 2002).) Bernice was able to remember both experiences. (PROSE: Dear Friend [+]Jim Sangster, A Life of Surprises (Bernice Summerfield short stories, Big Finish Productions, 2002).)

Clearer skies[]

Leading Nazi Rudolf Hess embarked on a mission in a plane. (PROSE: Heart of TARDIS [+]Dave Stone, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).) He was captured by the British and imprisoned in the Tower of London. (PROSE: The Domino Effect [+]David Bishop, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2003).)

As London, Britain and the Empire continued to suffer under the German onslaught, Churchill became desperate for something that would give Britain an advantage over Germany. It was in this context that the last Daleks in existence after the Last Great Time War and 21st century Dalek invasion arrived in 1941 and located a remaining Progenitor device. Unable to activate it as they were viewed as genetically impure, the Daleks passed themselves off as robotic war machines called Ironsides invented by Dr. Edwin Bracewell, himself actually an android, who approached the British military with plans for the so-called "Ironside Project". Despite his desperation, Churchill initially had his doubts about the Ironsides, seeing them as "too good to be true." (TV: Victory of the Daleks [+]Mark Gatiss, Doctor Who series 5 (BBC One, 2010).) He called the Eleventh Doctor for assistance, citing a "potentially very dangerous" situation, as one of the Daleks watched him. (TV: The Beast Below [+]Steven Moffat, Doctor Who series 5 (BBC One, 2010).)

A_Churchill_moment_-_Doctor_Who_-_BBC

A Churchill moment - Doctor Who - BBC

Demonstration of the Ironside Project. (TV: Victory of the Daleks [+]Mark Gatiss, Doctor Who series 5 (BBC One, 2010).)

However, the Doctor arrived to the "Ironside Incident" (PROSE: Dalek Combat Training Manual [+]Richard Atkinson and Mike Tucker, BBC Books (2021).) a month late. By then Churchill had become convinced of the Ironsides' effectiveness. They proved excellent at shooting down German aircraft flying over London and even produced new technologies which augmented the strength of the RAF by creating devices which went as far as to make their aircraft space-worthy. Churchill hoped to one day use the Ironsides in numbers to take the war to Germany. Ultimately, the Daleks were using themselves as bait to lure the Doctor to 1941 and confirm to the Progenitor, via his testimony, that they were truly Daleks. With this achieved, the active Progenitor produced the first Daleks of the New Dalek Paradigm.

Attempting to get the Doctor off their backs so they could escape, the new Daleks lit up every light in London, prompting German bombers to set off over the Channel at once to cause as much damage to the city as possible. However, the augmented Spitfires Jubilee, Flintlock and their leader Danny Boy flew into space and engaged the Dalek saucer above the Moon, knocking out the beam and plunging London back under the cover of darkness. The Daleks then set the Oblivion Continuum which powered Bracewell to detonate. With the whole of the Earth threatened with destruction, the Doctor had no choice but to leave the Daleks in order to deactivate the bomb, allowing them to escape the war via time corridor and rebuild their race. However, the Doctor and Amy Pond were able to defuse the bomb by helping Bracewell override it with his humanity. All alien technology was subsequently removed by the Doctor to prevent wide-scale tampering with history. (TV: Victory of the Daleks [+]Mark Gatiss, Doctor Who series 5 (BBC One, 2010).)

Bracewell continued to work with Churchill and the British. Later that year, he brought a mysterious painting by Vincent van Gogh before Churchill. Regarding the painting, Churchill tried to contact the Doctor but reached River Song in the Stormcage facility instead. He warned her about the painting so she could pass on the message to the Doctor. (TV: The Pandorica Opens [+]Steven Moffat, Doctor Who series 5 (BBC One, 2010).)

The Eleventh Doctor later recruited Danny Boy and the augmented Spitfires to fight at Demons Run. (TV: A Good Man Goes to War [+]Steven Moffat, Doctor Who series 6 (BBC One, 2011).)

Miss Wyckham

Wyckham and Koenig. (TV: Lost in Time [+]Rupert Laight, The Sarah Jane Adventures series 4 (CBBC, 2010).)

In June, a small group of Germans, led by Lieutenant Koenig assisted by Miss Wyckham, secretly landed on the south coast of England. They used a piece of Chronosteel found in the Rhineland to block early warning systems, which they hoped would allow the Germans to invade Britain in full force. Clyde Langer and George Woods stopped them, with Clyde returning the Chronosteel to its rightful place with the Shopkeeper and Captain in 2010. (TV: Lost in Time [+]Rupert Laight, The Sarah Jane Adventures series 4 (CBBC, 2010).)

Different dates were given as to when the Blitz ended. One account, later edited by the Twelfth Doctor, gave an exact date as 21 May 1941. (PROSE: A History of Humankind [+]Official Guides (BBC Children's Books, 2016).) The Seventh Doctor gave a rough estimate of July. (PROSE: Illegal Alien [+]Mike Tucker and Robert Perry, adapted from Illegal Alien, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1997).) The Germans themselves abandoned the strategy in early December, (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) although the British had received some respite before then as the Germans moved their attention to the east. (PROSE: Losing the Audience [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Despite the end of the Blitz, Britain suffered further bombing attacks even after that point, which continued for the rest of the war. (AUDIO: Hounded [+]Alan Barnes, The Churchill Years: Volume One (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2016)., Churchill Victorious [+]Robert Khan and Tom Salinsky, The Churchill Years: Volume Two (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2018)., PROSE: Ash [+]Trevor Baxendale, Short Trips: A Universe of Terrors (Short Trips, 2003)., Illegal Alien [+]Mike Tucker and Robert Perry, adapted from Illegal Alien, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1997).)

In retaliation, the RAF carried out its own systematic bombings of Germany, targeting the industrial centres of the Ruhr and the Rhine. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) which resulted in millions of German civilian deaths, far more than the British had lost in the Blitz. (PROSE: The Turing Test [+]Paul Leonard, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).) The bombardment of Germany crippled Reverend Wainwright's faith. (TV: The Curse of Fenric [+]Ian Briggs, Doctor Who season 26 (BBC1, 1989).) Oskar Steinmann claimed that the Luftwaffe only targeted industrial and military installations (which was false) while the RAF were responsible for many civilian deaths in Germany, and attacked with phosphorus bombs and dum-dum bullets, which German forces had banned the use of. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996)., AUDIO: Just War [+]Jacqueline Rayner, adapted from Just War (Lance Parkin), Bernice Summerfield: Single Releases (Big Finish Productions, 1999).) Major Poetschke of the 1st SS Panzer Division considered the Blitz justified as it was merely a means of trying to "persuade" the British. (PROSE: Autumn Mist [+]David A. McIntee, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 1999).) As Ian Chesterton understood it, British docks had been the Germans' primary target, but all of London's East End had suffered as a result. (PROSE: The Time Travellers [+]Simon Guerrier, Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2005).) Over 40,000 people were killed by the Blitz. (PROSE: A History of Humankind [+]Official Guides (BBC Children's Books, 2016).)

Fortress Europe and Beyond[]

Under the Nazi jackboot[]

According to German Military Law:

Local commanders of occupied territory may pass summary sentence on persons who are not subject to Military Law if the facts of the case are self-evident and if this procedure is adequate in view of the guilt of the offender.

In effect, this gave the Germans in the occupied territories license to execute civilians based on whether or not they felt they should. The same was true from Poland to France and Guernsey, although the last of these got off relatively lightly. In the winter of 1940, the Germans had consumed most of Guernsey's food and fuel supplies, but by March 1941, the islanders gradually grew used to the occupation, the number of executions decreased, the troops behaved in an orderly fashion around the women, and medicine supplies reached the island. Yet deportations of islanders to concentration camps still took place and would do until the end of the war. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

Nazis in Austria

Nazis in occupied Europe. (COMIC: Me and My Shadow [+]Scott Gray, DWM comic stories (Panini Comics, 2002).)

The Nazi deported "degenerates" from occupied cities such as Paris as well (AUDIO: The Scapegoat [+]Pat Mills, Eighth Doctor Adventures (Big Finish Productions, 2009).) and sent them to concentration camps established across occupied Europe where they used prisoners as "subhuman" slave labour. Slaves were made to work helping their conquerors consolidate their grip on the continent by constructing the sea wall along the coastline, including those of the Channel Islands. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) in order to turn Europe into a Nazi Fortress. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus [+]Terrance Dicks, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1991).) The Silurians observed the war and the actions of the Nazis with disgust. They felt it constituted proof of their perception of humans as uncaring and barbaric. (COMIC: As Time Goes By [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.)

Jews from all over occupied Europe were deported to death camps, where millions of them were to be systematically murdered in gas chambers for the remainder of the war. It was conducted in secrecy, sufficient enough for the Allies to hear nothing but rumours. (PROSE: The Turing Test [+]Paul Leonard, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).)

Nazi doctor Josef Mengele interrogated prisoners using Scopolamine as a form of truth serum. (PROSE: The Crawling Terror [+]Mike Tucker, BBC New Series Adventures (BBC Books, 2014).) He also administered equal dosages of poison to twins to test if they took the same amount of time to die. Elizabeth Klein claimed Mengele had the best of intentions, but admitted that even Hitler found his methods questionable. (AUDIO: A Thousand Tiny Wings [+]Andy Lane, Main Range (Big Finish Productions, 2010).) Xenobiologist Dr. Peter Morley later thought of Mengele as someone who was so caught up in his work that he never stopped to consider why he was doing it. (PROSE: The Scales of Injustice [+]Gary Russell, Virgin Missing Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

Oskar Steinmann spoke of British and French aggression, using the example of the British Empire moving into neutral countries such as Iceland, Iran and Madagascar, and explained that a German victory would see the British and French Empires wiped away. The Germans moved into Bulgaria. Romania, at an earlier stage, was also invaded. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996)., AUDIO: Just War [+]Jacqueline Rayner, adapted from Just War (Lance Parkin), Bernice Summerfield: Single Releases (Big Finish Productions, 1999).)

In April 1941, the Germans invaded Greece where they clashed with the British. On 19 April, the Germans outflanked the British on the Pindus Mountains, forcing them to withdraw. On 23 April, the British began the evacuation of Greece. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) Partisan movements subsequently emerged in Greece and Bulgaria. They built paths to allow more secretive movements around their countries. (PROSE: The Touch of the Nurazh [+]Stephen Hatcher, Short Trips: Monsters (Short Trips short stories, 2004).) Subsequently, the Germans occupied the Greek islands, (PROSE: Deadly Reunion [+]Terrance Dicks and Barry Letts, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2003).) which became distant outposts of the Reich. (AUDIO: Persuasion [+]Jonathan Barnes, Main Range (Big Finish Productions, 2013).)

Crete was evacuated and the British forces stationed there were ferried to Egypt. According to one story, a midshipman disobeyed the orders of a major-general to let him aboard a small landing craft when the midshipman was sure it was at capacity. The general still made it to Egypt and reported the incident to the commander-in-chief. The midshipman was summoned before the admiral and, after confirming the story was true, was praised for properly carrying out his duty. (PROSE: Island of Death [+]Barry Letts, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2005).)

Fighting also continued in North Africa, where the Italians sought to extend their control over the continent. (PROSE: Warlords of Utopia [+]Lance Parkin, Faction Paradox novels (Mad Norwegian Press, 2004).) British and Australian forces, with French forces under Charles de Gaulle, clashed with the German Afrika Korps, led by Field Marshal Erwin Rommel and Albert Kesselring, the Italians and their Tuareg tribesmen allies in the Sahara Desert, Libya. Tanks and aircraft were deployed by both sides during the campaign. (COMIC: The Instruments of War [+]Mike Collins, DWM Comics (Panini Comics, 2014-2015)., PROSE: The Dying Days [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1997).) The Fall of Tobruk occurred in this theatre. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) In the desert climates, some men witnessed mirages. (AUDIO: Amorality Tale [+]David Bishop, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2002).)

The Soviet Union enters the war[]
Main article: Operation Barbarossa

With Britain still undefeated, Germany turned her attention east towards the Soviet Union. They sought to capture Russia's countless resources of land, slaves, oil, grain and metals. Even before engaging in war against the Soviets, the Germans had been active in Eastern Europe, having already captured men from Georgia and using them as slave labour in the west. In June 1941, the Germans pushed into Eastern Europe in force, bringing the Soviets into the war on the side of the Allies. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) Lev Zemanova warned his wife Isabella Zemanova about the invasion on the day it began and urged her to flee with their two infant children to the safety of Stalingrad. (PROSE: The Beast of Stalingrad [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) relieving Britain from the immediate threat of invasion. (PROSE: Losing the Audience [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) Churchill and Stalin allied their nations against the Germans, although Churchill was reluctant to do so, remembering that Stalin had come to agreements with Hitler a few years previously. (AUDIO: Human Conflict [+]Iain McLaughlin, The Churchill Years: Volume Two (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2018).)

The invasion opened the Eastern Front. The Russians suffered terribly during Operation Barbarossa. (PROSE: The Shadow in the Glass [+]Justin Richards and Stephen Cole, BBC Past Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2001).) Almost two thousand Russian planes were destroyed by the Luftwaffe on the first day of the attack. The Baltic States quickly fell to the Germans, and the Army advanced forty miles into Russia with each passing day as they fought towards Moscow, which Oskar Steinmann claimed would take three weeks. They had problems establishing their supply lines fast enough to keep up. More than two million Red Army soldiers, more men than in the whole British Army, became German prisoners of war after the Battles of Bialystock, Kiev and Vyazma-Briansk. More Soviet soldiers were captured each day than the Germans could process. The astonishing speed and successes of the campaign were announced on German radio stations. Propagandists were soon told to tone down their reports of victories because German citizens were beginning not to believe them. (PROSE: Just War [+]Lance Parkin, Virgin New Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).)

Torchwood agents LeDuc and his alien partner Gabriel travelled from Calais to Paris in search of Project Hermod. While travelling through Montroy, Nazi guards accidentally came in contact with Gabriel, whose abilities forced people to take on the form of their innermost self. This inadvertently caused a zombie outbreak which affected the SS ranks. Project Hermod's Oppenführer Hans Grau believed French socialite Madame Berber was responsible, working for Torchwood and the French Resistance. Grau interrogated LeDuc to receive a confession to this effect but when he threatened Gabriel as part of the interrogation, Grau became a victim of the contagion himself. LeDuc estimated that 5,000 Germans would be killed before they could neutralise the contagion. (AUDIO: The Dying Room [+]Lizzie Hopley, Torchwood (Big Finish Productions, 2017).)

As the war expanded, the alien arms dealer Bragnar made a deal to turn Earth into a radioactive wasteland suitable for habitation by the Gilan. To achieve this, she sought to escalate the war by selling hugely destructive weapons to both the Allies and the Axis. Seeing the Germans as the more aggressive side, she approached them first. She met with Colonel Fischer in occupied Denmark and demonstrated the potential of one of her weapons by destroying a mountain. A British plane, flying over Denmark on an intelligence-sharing mission to Russia, discovered the mountain had gone, as they were using it as a reference point on the return trip. Informed of the developments by Lieutenant Ian Fleming, Churchill ordered a covert mission to Denmark to discover more about the weapon, and if possible to destroy it or capture it. Despite the urging of the Ninth Doctor that Churchill not get involved, Churchill felt that Britain's situation was too grave to take no action, and that possession of the Germans' weapon would bring the war to a swift end.

Fleming led the mission to Denmark. His team landed safety and swiftly infiltrated the German compound. Bragnar was located and extracted and Fleming's team made their escape, pursued by the Germans. They were aided by crucial RAF support. Some pilots spend longer than was advisable on this mission and they barely landed back in Britain with any fuel to spare. Inevitably, there were some casualties but Fleming's team successfully travelled back to Britain over the North Sea in a Sunderland flying boat with Bragnar and arranged to meet with Churchill in his old Parliamentary constituency of Dundee. Bragnar directed Churchill to the Isle of Murrah in the Outer Hebrides, demanding a quarter of Britain's gold and jewel reserves for the weapon. Against the Ninth Doctor's continued insistence, Churchill decided to meet with Bragnar on the island. Fischer's Germans following from Denmark pursued Churchill and Connolly towards the harbour before they left for the Hebrides. British Army troops arrived to deal with the Germans, although Fischer escaped.

The British had ordered a squad of bombers to fly towards Murrah while the Germans summoned a warship. Arriving on Murrah ahead of their respective attacks, Bragnar brought Churchill and Fischer into a stand-off. The Doctor arrived and attempted to mediate between the groups. With the fate of the Earth at stake, Churchill and Fischer agreed to talk and came to an understanding while they raided Bragnar's ship with the Doctor to deactivate its shields. Fischer and his men escaped on a boat back to their incoming battleship while the British fled on the Sunderland after the bombers obliterated Bragnar's ship. With the alliance of convenience over, Churchill, with regret but out of necessity, ordered the bombers to attack the German battleship. (AUDIO: Human Conflict [+]Iain McLaughlin, The Churchill Years: Volume Two (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2018).)

In Russia, Leningrad was surrounded by the Germans. With Panzer divisions just ten miles away, the curator of the Palace Museum prepared to evacuate all the valuables to Siberia so they would not fall into German hands. However, the Amber Room was too fragile to be moved. The curator attempted to hide it by papering it over and covering the floor with sand to make it appear as if it was a normal room, before leaving with the collection to Siberia. However, the Germans discovered the Amber Room within hours after reaching the Palace, stripped it from the Palace and had it transported back to Germany. (PROSE: Cabinets of Curiosities [+]Mags L. Halliday, Collected Works (Big Finish Productions, 2006).)

The long war[]

With the stress of the ongoing war, Churchill was frequently prone to black moods. Major Wheatley grew increasingly concerned given that Churchill was presently one of the most important men in the world. Wheatley sought after a way to control the Prime Minister's emotions. He recruited the aid of a Swami named Kahn Tareen, the host to an entity known as the Black Dog, and attempted to make Churchill believe the Dog had an affinity to him. One autumn night at his home in Chartwell, Churchill was having difficulty writing an inspirational speech about never giving in to force for the boys of his own former school in Harrow, London. During an early-morning circuit of the grounds, he was chased by inside by the Black Dog. Churchill put the matter down to a hallucination brought on by situational stress while the Security Services began questioning his sanity. Fearing for Churchill's safety, Hetty Warner contacted the Tenth Doctor for help.

Under Wheatley's supervision, Tareen released the Black Dog, which escaped, killing several people and running through the London streets. As the group chased it, Wheatley's plan and motives were exposed. He was killed by the Black Dog shortly after, as was Hetty in an act of self-sacrifice, before the Doctor's own "Black Dog", a manifestation of his darkest emotions, was summoned to defeat the hound. Hetty's funeral was held a week later at her home in the north of England. Her death was officially reported as a casualty of the waning Blitz. She was remembered for being able to stand up to Churchill, a feat which not even Hitler could achieve. (AUDIO: Hounded [+]Alan Barnes, The Churchill Years: Volume One (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2016).)

Into October, Churchill privately remained concerned about the fact that Bracewell was still at large, fearing his Dalek programming may reassert itself. He considered tracking Bracewell down and sending him to work on codebreaking at Bletchley Park, where he could be supervised by the likes of Alan Turing. (PROSE: The Lost Diaries of Winston Spencer Churchill [+]Mark Gatiss, The Brilliant Book 2011 (The Brilliant Book 2011 short stories, BBC Books, 2010).) Other codebreakers included Rachel Jensen, (PROSE: Who Killed Kennedy [+]David Bishop, Virgin Books (1996)., The Scales of Injustice [+]Gary Russell, Virgin Missing Adventures (Virgin Books, 1996).) Constance Clarke, (AUDIO: Criss-Cross [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.) and Toshiko Sato's grandparents. (TV: Greeks Bearing Gifts [+]Toby Whithouse, Torchwood series 1 (BBC Three, 2006).)

Bletchley code-breakers were offered residence at their working establishments but they were forbidden from speaking about their activities. This was somewhat difficult for some of the men, including Turing, as they had avoided conscription but no obvious war contribution to speak of, thus garnering suspicion or resentment. (PROSE: The Turing Test [+]Paul Leonard, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).) Nevertheless, the codebreakers proved vital to the British war effort. The Germans' ENIGMA and Lorenz cyphers were cracked without the Germans ever finding out, allowing the British access to German communications. Some historians estimated that this development shortened the war by four years. (PROSE: A History of Humankind [+]Official Guides (BBC Children's Books, 2016).)

Professor Alec Palmer also served as a British spy. (TV: Hide [+]Neil Cross, Doctor Who series 7 (BBC One, 2013).) British intelligence eventually weeded out all the German spies operating in the country, (AUDIO: Churchill Victorious [+]Robert Khan and Tom Salinsky, The Churchill Years: Volume Two (The Churchill Years, Big Finish Productions, 2018).) most of their agents being captured or turning themselves in. However, Lesley Kulcade, a "dyed-in-the-wool Nazi" working in MI5, secretly fed information to the Germans throughout the war in support of Hitler's vision. (AUDIO: Subterfuge [+]Error: Code 2 - no data stored in variables, cache or SMW.)

Although not involved in the war, Turkey also operated agents in occupied territories. One of their male agents in Paris in a misguided attempt to blend in adopted the alias Chanel Parfum. (PROSE: The Turing Test [+]Paul Leonard, BBC Eighth Doctor Adventures (BBC Books, 2000).)

Another British spy included Fey Truscott-Sade. In November 1941, Fey and Jacob Gansmann were sent on a mission to Austria to retrieve enemy documents detailing the movement schedule of the Fifth Panzer Division. The initial recovery of the documents was simple as Colonel Kessler had left his headquarters poorly guarded, an error that threatened him with a demotion transporting him to the Leningrad front. Kessler pursued the spies before they could cross the border into neutral Switzerland and reach the safety of Zurich. Gansmann was killed on the mission, eaten alive by Kessler's dog Thor. However Shayde awoke within Fey's mind and allowed her to use his powers to kill Kessler and his men. Fey escaped with the documents and headed to Zurich by train. (COMIC: Me and My Shadow [+]Scott Gray, DWM comic stories (Panini Comics, 2002).)

In November, British forces in North Africa raided the German headquarters in an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Rommel. One month later, during a lull in the fighting in Cyrenaica, Libya, the German command was infiltrated by a Rutan spy disguised as German war hero Heinz Bruckner, searching for the Sontarans' lost superweapon, the Warsong. The Twelfth Doctor, Rommel, Kygon Brox's forces of the Eighth Sontaran Battle Fleet and even the Allied forces worked together to prevent the Rutans from using the Warsong to transform Earth into a weapon that could be used in the Sontaran-Rutan War. After its destruction, the fighting in Africa resumed. (COMIC: The Instruments of War [+]Mike Collins, DWM Comics (Panini Comics, 2014-2015).)

Brian Galway was killed in North Africa. (COMIC: Memorial [+]Warwick Gray, DWM Comics (Marvel Comics, 1992).) Sam Bishop's great-grandfather fought with the Eighth Army, serving in North African battlefronts such as Gazala, Tobruk and El Alamein. (AUDIO: Earthfall