The Turk was a machine created in the 18th century. It took the form and, apparently, mind of a human. The grand masters of Europe could play chess against the machine. (PROSE: The Adventuress of Henrietta Street)
Behind the scenes
The Turk served as inspiration for Russell T Davies in devising the Clockwork Droids that appeared in 2006's The Girl in the Fireplace. (DWMSE 14) The title of the audio story The Silver Turk also refers to the machine.