Sheffield was built on industry. The city produced "Sheffield steel" (PROSE: Transit, Sky Pirates!, TV: The Woman Who Fell to Earth) which was used to make fine cutlery. (PROSE: The Also People, et al.) It was also once a producer of coal; parts of the city were built over disused coal mines. (TV: Arachnids in the UK)
Sheffield was located in the county of South Yorkshire, (TV: Arachnids in the UK, Demons of the Punjab) in the Hallamshire area. (TV: The Woman Who Fell to Earth) Districts of Sheffield included Arbourthorne, Birkendale, Boulder Hill, Brightside, Broomhall, Burngreave, Cathedrals, Clough Field, Crookesmoor, Darnall, Fir Vale, Firth Park, Greenland, Grimesthorpe, Handsworth, Highfield, Hillsborough, Howard Hill, Kelham Island, Longley Estate, Manor Castle, Manor Estate, Middlewood, Neepsend, Netherthorpe, Owlerton, Parkwood Springs, Parson Cross, Pismire Hill, Pitsmoor, Sheffield Park, Shirecliffe, Shiregreen, Stannington, Studfield Hill, Tinsley, Upperthorpe, Wadsley, Wadsley Bridge, Walkley, Wincobank, Wood Hill, Woodland View, Woodside, Worrall, Wybourn (TV: Arachnids in the UK) and Grenoside. (TV: The Waters of Mars)
The city had at least two universities, Sheffield University (TV: The Waters of Mars) and Sheffield Hallam University, (TV: Arachnids in the UK) with a third - the University of South Yorkshire - advertised on transport within the area. (TV: The Woman Who Fell to Earth)
The city had its own bus station. (TV: The Woman Who Fell to Earth) Stagecoach Supertram had a network around the city, with stops at Malin Bridge and Meadowhall. (TV: Arachnids in the UK) Sheffield also had rail connections with Manchester. (PROSE: Spinning Jenny) A motorway ran by Sheffield, the local access point to which was junction 34. (TV: Arachnids in the UK)
Sheffield was not yet built in the 9th century. One of the Three Custodians was shot by an arrow on his way to the Yorkshire burial site in the area where the Sheffield Town Hall would later be built. (TV: Resolution)
In the Punjab, Umbreen's father bought her a world map from the market one day. She decided to put a finger on the map, and resolved to go wherever it landed. It landed on Sheffield, which Umbreen deemed to be an exotic location.
Umbreen eventually moved to Sheffield from Lahore with her second husband and had a daughter, Najia. By 2018, she admitted it wasn't as exotic as she once hoped, but she had fallen in love with the city nonetheless. (TV: Demons of the Punjab)
In 2000, Evelyn Smythe was lecturing at Sheffield Hallam University when she met the Sixth Doctor and began travelling with him. (AUDIO: The Marian Conspiracy, PROSE: Instruments of Darkness) Evelyn and the Doctor returned to the university not too long later and visited Sally. (AUDIO: Doctor Who and the Pirates)
In 2001, Dr. Who assassinated Queen Elizabeth II while she was making an appearance at the Ponds Forge building in Sheffield. The self-doubts of his accomplice Jason, coupled with his own essentially fictional nature, meant that the Queen survived. The Seventh Doctor and Melanie Bush came to Sheffield to try to stop the assassination and were reunited with Time's Vigilante Ace, who was investigating after reading about the incident in future newspapers. (PROSE: Head Games)
In 2008, Harwood's Haulage, Rhys Williams' employer, (TV: Kiss Kiss, Bang Bang) operated out of Sheffield, Ipswich, Carlisle, Birmingham and Cardiff — according to signage on their lorries and their website. (TV: Meat)
In October 2016, Charlie Smith told Ram Singh that he was from Sheffield. This pretence had been given to both Charlie and Miss Quill by the Twelfth Doctor so that nobody would become suspicious of their alien nature. (TV: For Tonight We Might Die)
In September 2018, (TV: The Woman Who Fell to Earth) the Thirteenth Doctor, having just regenerated, (TV: Twice Upon a Time, PROSE: Twice Upon a Time) fell out of her exploding TARDIS and landed in Sheffield. There she met Ryan Sinclair, Yasmin Khan, Graham O'Brien and Grace O'Brien and together they stopped a Stenza from hunting Karl Wright as a trophy. (TV: The Woman Who Fell to Earth) At this point in time, there was a green police box on Surrey Street, as referenced by Yasmin on her first sight of the TARDIS. (TV: The Ghost Monument)
After reuniting with her TARDIS, the Thirteenth Doctor returned Ryan, Graham and Yaz to Sheffield, half an hour after they'd left, with the four discovering a species of giant spiders based in one of Jack Robertson's hotels. When the time came for the Doctor to leave, the trio decided to stay with her. (TV: Arachnids in the UK)
On New Year's Day 2019, the Thirteenth Doctor and her companions discovered that an ancient Dalek reconnaissance scout had been buried beneath Sheffield. After the Dalek had used Sheffield's resources to reconstruct itself, it left to access the Government Central Communications Headquarters in London. (TV: Resolution)
After an adventure with the Tenth Doctor and Martha Jones in 1969, Team TARDIS asked to be return to Sheffield for some relaxation, (COMIC: A Little Help from My Friends) only to wind up in an alternate timeline where the Sea Devils had conquered Earth. (COMIC: Alternating Current) When they eventually returned for the promised downtime, the three found themselves targeted by the Eternal Zellin for their nightmares. When he was defeated, Ryan admitted to Yaz that he'd felt disconnected from their home, wondering how long they would stay with the Doctor. (TV: Can You Hear Me?)
When their next adventure had led Team TARDIS finding themselves in the ruins of Gallifrey, the Doctor sent them back to Sheffield, along with Ravio and Yedlarmi, in another TARDIS. (TV: The Timeless Children) Following the subsequent adventure that led to Team TARDIS reuniting with the Doctor, Graham and Ryan elected to leave the TARDIS, staying in Sheffield for a time before heading out on their own travels. (TV: Revolutions of the Daleks)
Behind the scenes
As clarified in the story's novelisation, Sheffield appears in Scream of the Shalka as the hometown of Alison Cheney, the Ninth Doctor's companion. In part four, Alison and her boyfriend Joe Latham are evacuated to her parents' home in Sheffield but the Shalka take control of their bodies and make them drive to Edale Wood.
The website whoisdoctorwho.co.uk had a list of sightings of the Doctor from which people had ostensibly been submitting to Clive Finch, a conspiracy theorist character from Rose, who had pictures of the Doctor's ninth incarnation on the website, asking if anyone had seen him.
A submission from H.J. Hardeman claimed to have seen "someone very much like him about a year ago". He had tried swapping "Edwardean gear" [sic] at an Oxfam in Sheffield for a pair of jeans and trainers.