Planets were celestial bodies of varying size, large enough to be rounded into a spherical shape by their own gravity, but not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion. Most planets existed as part of a star system. Some planets possessed an atmosphere and could support life.
Planets generally orbited stars, but rogue planets (COMIC: The Rogue Planet) and wandering planetoids were not uncommon. (TV: Revenge of the Cybermen, The Tenth Planet) Perihelion was when a planet or other body came closest to its star. (HOMEVID: The Zero Imperative)
There were a number of highly unusual planets in the universe, including Magla, in reality, an immense amoeba with a crust-like shell, (TV: Destiny of the Daleks) and the artificial planet Arcadia. (PROSE: Deceit)
Some planets were artificially accelerated through the interference (intentional or not) of other life forms. Normally in these cases, large starships provided the initial large mass which began the process of planetary formation. Such a fate befell a Minyan ship, the P7E, by accident (and nearly also happened to another Minyan vessel, the R1C), (TV: Underworld) and the Secret Heart, the vessel carrying the last of the Racnoss, by design. (TV: The Runaway Bride)
As noted by Professor Alistair Gryffen, planets would continually move through space across their history. Thus, in the year 50000, the Earth would be located far away in the galaxy from the place it held in the 21st century. (TV: The Bounty Hunter)