Parallel evolution was an evolutionary process by which separate groups of organisms occupying different but equivalent environments developed similar adaptations or characteristics for survival.

The Twelfth Doctor cited this as the process that led to the independent development of several factions of Cybermen on various planets throughout time and space, including Mondas (and on a Mondasian colony ship), Telos, Earth, Planet 14, and Marinus. (TV: The Doctor Falls)

When Marc Cory explained to Gordon Lowery that vargas on Kembel meant the Daleks were there, Lowery suggested that they could've grown naturally via parallel evolution or even been transplanted, but Cory explained they were developed in Dalek laboratories. (PROSE: Mission to the Unknown)

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