A nuclear bomb was a nuclear weapon.
The Black Archive had a self-destruct capability that used a nuclear bomb to destroy the contents of the base, preventing the weaponry and technology within from falling into the wrong hands. The blast would destroy London. Kate Stewart activated the bomb when a group of Zygons infiltrated the facility, but after the memories of Stewart and her Zygon duplicate were erased, they deactivated the bomb and peacefully negotiated. (TV: The Day of the Doctor)
In 2049, when the Earth's tides were made chaotic by the increased gravitational pull of the Moon, a team was sent to destroy the natural satellite with nuclear bombs. The detonation was cancelled by Clara Oswald in a bid to save the life of the creature hatching from the Moon. (TV: Kill the Moon)
In the Unbound Universe, the Chinese government sought to dispose of the alien parasites that powered the Keller Machines via a nuclear bomb test that coincided with the handover of Hong Kong. After a test of the bombs, they detonated a second that destroyed the parasites, the Doctor and the Brigadier putting the last parasite in the detonation area. The shockwave of the bomb's detonation disabled the inhibitor on the Doctor's TARDIS, sending it flying away from Earth. (AUDIO: Sympathy for the Devil)
In 200,100, Lynda Moss claimed that the Ninth Doctor would need a nuclear bomb to get through the exoglass within the Big Brother House on the Game Station, to which he replied "don't tempt me." (TV: Bad Wolf)