Madam or Madame was a polite form of address for women on Earth (TV: Frontier in Space, AUDIO: The Rise of the New Humans) and Gallifrey. (TV: The Invasion of Time) It was sometimes shortened to Ma'am, particularly when addressing one's commanding officer, (TV: Planet of the Dead, The Wedding of River Song) or indeed Her Majesty the Queen. (TV: Tooth and Claw, The Beast Below)

FIRST LOOK Episode 1 The Woman Who Fell To Earth Doctor Who

FIRST LOOK Episode 1 The Woman Who Fell To Earth Doctor Who

"Why are you calling me madam?" (TV: The Woman Who Fell to Earth)

When Vastra integrated into "polite Victorian society", (COMIC: The Lost Dimension) she took up the title of Madame while living on Paternoster Row. (TV: A Good Man Goes to War)

Within minutes of her regeneration, the Thirteenth Doctor questioned why Yasmin Khan called her "madam", unaccustomed to her new gender. When told it was because she was a woman, the Doctor asked if it suited her. (TV: The Woman Who Fell to Earth) She later expressed how strange it still felt to be called ma'am. (TV: Rosa)

In 1950s Alabama, it was considered impolite to speak to one's elders without addressing them as "ma'am" or "sir". Rosa Parks asked Ryan Sinclair if his mother "raised [him] with no manners" when he omitted the word from his response. (TV: Rosa)