Internally, Kaleds also differed from both humans and Thals. Blood tests showed that humans and Gallifreyans were biologically very dissimilar to them. (TV: Genesis of the Daleks) Kaleds had purple tissue and their ribs were more widely spaced than those of humans. (TV: The Stolen Earth) They had thicker lungs than the Thals and they had a copper-based blood with a green tint. The Kaled heart was grey. (AUDIO: Corruption)
Towards the end of the Thousand Year War, the life expectancy of Kaled females had declined to 52, an age which Davros' mother Lady Calcula had long since surpassed by the time of her death. According to Davros, she was one of the oldest living Kaleds. (AUDIO: Corruption) By that time, few Kaleds had died of old age in ten generations. (AUDIO: Davros, Corruption)
During the Thousand Year War, the Kaleds lived under a totalitarian government in which the military was very powerful, although unlike their descendants they understood and approved of the concept of democracy. (TV: Genesis of the Daleks) They were led by the Supremo. (AUDIO: Purity) Beneath him were the Scientific Elite and the Military Elite and Elite Guards, who lived in special bunkers. The majority of the population lived in the Kaled Dome, most of the other cities having long been destroyed. Later on, the Kaled dome was reinforced with a substance many times stronger than reinforced concrete for additional protection, though the dome was eventually destroyed with the city underneath it. Kaleds mutated by radiation and chemicals, the Mutos, were exiled into the wastelands, (TV: Genesis of the Daleks) joined by deserters from the military, who also succumbed to the toxic conditions and mutated. When Davros and his team fled a Thal factory, they were attacked by Mutos from the wastelands. (AUDIO: Purity)
All young Kaleds were expected to serve in the Military Youth. According to Lady Calcula, this provided the young with "skills and opportunities to progress... should they live long enough to take advantage of them". When Davros was 16, he was still considered to be a boy, while 18-year-old Yarvell was regarded as "almost a woman, no longer a child". Yarvell herself considered this to be "trapped in the middle of nowhere". (AUDIO: Innocence) As time passed and the war grew more intense, while joining the Military Youth was still technically voluntary, societal attitudes had made joining compulsory to the point where children were beaten or even killed for failing to join or questioning the war effort. At this time, there was no clear lower age limit on joining, as children as young as 8 had joined. (AUDIO: Corruption)
The Kaleds believed that in all the "seven galaxies" they were able to study, only Skaro was capable of supporting intelligent life. They were consequently surprised to find that the Doctor and his companions were not from Skaro and they disbelieved it at first, although the Kaleds were advanced enough to carry out scans of anatomy and DNA. (TV: Genesis of the Daleks)
The Kaled god of war was a "horned beast" which was thought to have been inspired by the Beast. (TV: The Satan Pit) Captain Croag and the Highland Rangers was a popular children's programme on Kaled television. Calcula also mentioned that they showed children footage of battles in classrooms to persuade children to join the military, although she considered the edited highlights "too sanitised". (AUDIO: Corruption)
The Kaleds externally resembled Thals, but their last common ancestor had diverged some 100 million years previously. This was very shortly after the development of multi-cellular life on Skaro. (AUDIO: Corruption)
By the time of the Thousand Year War, the two other sentient humanoid races, the Tharons and the Dals, were both extinct as a result of a programme of genocide orchestrated by the Kaleds. (AUDIO: Purity)
Thousand Year War
Originally, the Kaleds and the Thals lived together in peace, archaeologists discovered the ruins of ancient cities containing artwork depicting Kaleds and Thals even intermarrying on occasion, though this research was suppressed by the Kaled government for political reasons. (AUDIO: Purity) Due to unknown circumstances, the Kaleds and Thals engaged in the Thousand Year War. Both sides originally used advanced energy weapons, but the materials and industrial equipment required to make them became scarce. By the end of the conflict, the majority of soldiers were armed with weapons similar to those on early 20th century Earth such as bolt action rifles, submachine guns or even bows. At this point, only two cities on Skaro remained intact. These domed cities overlooked a polluted wasteland brimming with sand and radiation as well as booby traps such as handmines and conventional landmines. (TV: Genesis of the Daleks, The Magician's Apprentice/The Witch's Familiar)
Near the end of the war, Davros was studying the effects of radiation on Skaro's flora and fauna. He concluded that the Kaleds would have to mutate into a new form of life, the Daleks, to survive Skaro's decimated biosphere. When he discovered the ultimate form of his people, Davros devised travel machines and conducted experiments to refine the design. He placed some of the genetically engineered mutants inside an incubation room for implantation into the machines.
Some of his tests were to refine movement, and to see how effective the weaponry was. Other experiments were to test their optical systems and their sensory circuits.
In order to achieve the eventual outcome for his people, he gave the Thals the means to destroy the Kaled city to justify the creation of the first Dalek army, which he then sent to destroy the Thals. When a large portion of the remaining Kaleds objected to the continuation of the Dalek experiment, Davros ordered his Daleks to exterminate them. The Daleks subsequently rebelled against their creator and proceeded to exterminate his remaining followers and nearly the scientist himself. (TV: Genesis of the Daleks)
The Last Great Time War
During the Last Great Time War, Daleks devolved back into Kaleds on the planet that the Neverwhen was used on as a result of time phasing. The War Doctor fought alongside several Kaled soldiers on the planet for a time, believing them to be early Gallifreyan soldiers. Perhaps inspired through observing the Kaleds here, as suggested by Cardinal Ollistra, (AUDIO: The Neverwhen) a faction of Dalek Scientists secretly plotted to retro-evolve Dalek mutants back into Kaleds on Asteroid Theta 12, in an attempt to gain a fresh perspective on the Time War from the Daleks's ancestors. Project K006 was the most successful test subject created by the Dalek Scientists before Dalek High Command discovered their project and ordered for the destruction of the Scientists' base. (AUDIO: A Thing of Guile)
In a parallel universe where the Thousand Year War never happened on Skaro, the Thals and Kaleds lived in peace with each other for several centuries, after allying to destroy the Time Lords when they attempted to destroy the Kaleds at a point in time when they were a "nascent species". As a result of this peace, the Davros of this universe initially did not create the Daleks, instead becoming an expert in dimensional engineering with his Thal wife, Charn. Ultimately, however, the Kaleds of this universe were converted into Daleks by the Dalek Time Strategist and Davros, the latter of whom was fused with echos of all of Davros's counterparts from the multiverse; this process was repeated on the echos of the parallel universes that the Dalek Time Strategist merged with Davros's native dimension (AUDIO: Palindrome) to create an infinite army of Daleks. (AUDIO: Restoration of the Daleks)