Judge Burrows believed that Captain Kybo was "a rhinoceros in a kilt".
The Judoon use an H₂O scoop to transport the whole of the courtroom and its inhabitants to another planet. They also use a DNA scoop to transport Gedge to the courtroom against his will.
Although the Judoon mainly work for the Shadow Proclamation, the Captain explains that they also perform nonessential side missions on the side, such as terraformingplanets for investors who wish to buy them.
The Doctor states that the Judoon brain could fit onto a teaspoon.
The Aetius describe the Judoon as "such unimaginative creatures".
The Doctor says, "I am not an animal, I am a Time Lord!" This is a reference to the line, "I am not an animal! I am a human being!" from The Elephant Man starring John Hurt as the title character John Merrick.
The Doctor plans to visit Samuel Taylor Coleridge in Porlock. The Person from Porlock was an unwelcome visitor to Coleridge's home in 1797 who interrupted him while he was composing his poem Kubla Khan, which came to him in a dream. The interruption caused him to forget the remaining lines and the poem was never completed.