The Ninth Doctor, Rose Tyler and Jack Harkness visited Kyoto, Japan in 1336, where the Battle of Minatogawa was fought between imperial Japanese forces and the Ashikaga. (COMIC: Return of the Volsci, TV: Bad Wolf)
During the 1630s, Japan was ruled by the Third Tokugawa shōgun, who implemented the policy of Sakoku, isolating the country from the rest of the world due to a suspicion of Westerners and the spread of Christianity into Asia. (AUDIO: The Barbarians and the Samurai)
The Master had the TARDIS take the Eighth Doctor and Izzy Sinclair to Japan in the early 17th century, during an isolationist period, to witness the chaos being caused by the alien "Gaijin" - the Doctor had intended to land in the tenth century's Heian Period. The Clan Rikushira plotted to use the "Gaijin's" technology to depose the shogun. (COMIC: The Road to Hell)
In the 1820s, the First Doctor, Susan, Barbara and Ian Chesterton visited Kyushu in Japan, where they were captured by Daimyo Takagi Mamoru and taken to Nagomi Castle. They managed to escape, with Mamoru's blessing, after the castle was laid siege to by the army of Shogun Tokugawa Ienari.
In the mid-19th century, United States warships sailed into Edo Harbour and demanded a trade agreement with the hitherto isolationist Japan. The shogun accepted the demand, ending the policy of Sakoku. At a later stage, Edo was renamed Tokyo. (AUDIO: The Barbarians and the Samurai)
In the run-up to the Pacific War/World War II, it became Japan's ambition to unite Asia under the Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere. (PROSE: The Face of the Enemy) The Imperial Japanese Army invaded the north-eastern Chinese province of Manchuria in 1931 and reorganised it into the puppet state of Manchukuo in 1932 occupied by the Kwantung Army. They subjugated the Chinese peasants and used them as slaves and test subjects while seeking to develop biological weapons in Zhong Ma Fotress, in preparation for further conflict against either China or the Soviet Union. (PROSE: The Shadow of Weng-Chiang, Log 384)
In 1932, Shanghai placed sanctions on Japanese trade. Japanese soldiers were deployed onto the streets and clashed with the Chinese before Western powers intervened. Major Ryuji Matsu promised Sung-Chi Li that Shanghai would one day fall to Japan. He also claimed Japan was attempting to expand their rule to China to restore order to the nation which was divided by the struggle between Nationalists and Communists.
In February 1936, a military revolt by the First Infantry Division broke out in Tokyo in support of the Kodo Ha faction of the army. Numerous government ministers and civil servants were killed before the revolt was put down by imperial decree, leaving the Tosei Ha in charge of the army but they were more susceptible to the Kodo Ha pressure.
In July 1937, the army engineered a fight against the Chinese at Marco Polo Bridge to justify further expansion of the Japanese Empire into China. This signalled the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War. (PROSE: The Shadow of Weng-Chiang)
On Sunday, 7 July 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii, bringing the United States of America into the war. (PROSE: Only Connect) In February 1942, they declared war on the United Kingdom and went after the British Empire's colonies towards Singapore. (AUDIO: The Forsaken)
In 1945, two atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A third bomb was planned to be dropped on Kyoto, but the aircraft carrying the bomb, the Sky Jack, fell through a black hole. (COMIC: Sky Jacks) Japan surrendered to the Americans. Ishii Shiro and the other war criminals behind Zhong Ma and Unit 731 were granted immunity for their war crimes. (PROSE: Log 384)
In the early 21st century, Japan was renowned for its advances in the robotics industry. When Peter Dalton encountered K9, Luke Smith said that K9 was a new robot toy from Japan. (TV: The Wedding of Sarah Jane Smith)
Axos took over Japan through use of ingredients in the Goruda brand drink. The children who had drunk it turned into Axons. UNIT, under Major Hiraki, called in the Eleventh Doctor. (COMIC: The Golden Ones) The Twelfth Doctor encountered the Japanese UNIT branch again, this time represented by Colonel Ishiguro, when he dealt with a Kaznak Simu-System. (COMIC: Big in Japan)
By the early 22nd century, Japan was years into a recession and money had dried up for Martian terraforming. The resulting social collapse caused many to emigrate to the offworld colonies, including the Pluto Japanese-colony cities of Yamaha, Dentsu and Nagorno-Karabakh. (PROSE: Transit)
During the Year That Never Was, the Master destroyed Japan, watching the islands and its cities and inhabitants burn. However, when the year was erased from history, Japan was returned to its proper place and its people were returned to their homeland. They did not remember their own deaths or anything else that had happened. (TV: Last of the Time Lords) Martha escaped Japan and made her way towards Europe. (PROSE: The Story of Martha)