Iraq was a nation on Earth.
It was formed in the aftermath of World War I, and was originally a British colony. In 1930, the Eleventh Doctor and Clara Oswald visited Baghdad, a major city in Iraq. (COMIC: A Wing and a Prayer)
The Iraq War was fought there in the 2000s. Lance Metcalf's father was killed while serving there. (TV: To the Last Man, TV: Warriors of Kudlak, AUDIO: Unregenerate!) When ICIS committed acts of false flag terrorism, media pundits suggested this may be in response to Iraq and Syria. (AUDIO: The Longest Night)
Major Philip Kirby was fired from the army after he abused Iraqi prisoners. (AUDIO: The Longest Night)
In 2009, the "Republic of Iraq" was among the nations which agreed to let John Frobisher speak on their behalf to the 456. (TV: Children of Earth: Day Three)