Fascism was a political ideology.
The word fascism came from the Latin "fasces," which meant "a bunch of sticks tied together," with the idea that people were stronger when working together than as individuals. This, however, often resulted in the subjugation of the individual for the benefit of the majority, a philosophy which the Seventh Doctor was adamantly opposed to. (AUDIO: A Thousand Tiny Wings)
In the 1930s, Cecelia Pollard was a member of the League of English Fascists. (AUDIO: A Blind Eye) Conversely, her father Lord Richard Pollard considered them to be "a rum lot". (AUDIO: The Fall of the House of Pollard)
Nazi Colonel Oskar Steinmann claimed Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland and France all welcomed German rule both before and during World War II because of the Nazi commitment to uniting the world under a strong fascist ideology. (PROSE: Just War)
In the 1930s, Benito Mussolini, a fascist dictator, came to power in Italy. (AUDIO: The Rapture) Italy remained under fascist rule during the Second World War, allying itself with other similarly fascist nations like imperialist Japan and Nazi Germany. (PROSE: Warlords of Utopia)
In July 1936 (PROSE: History 101) the Spanish Nationalists revolted against the democratic government in Spain, resulting in the Spanish Civil War. Fascist, communist, and anarchist factions were involved in the war. (AUDIO: Fiesta of the Damned) The war ended in a fascist victory in 1939 with Spain becoming a fascist state under Francisco Franco until his death in 1975. (PROSE: History 101)
By 1938, nazism (a branch of fascism) was present in Germany. (TV: Let's Kill Hitler) The Nazis fought against the British Empire during the Second World War, (TV: The Empty Child, Victory of the Daleks) and ultimately lost to them, (TV: The Doctor Dances) and the rest of the Allied powers. (PROSE: Magic of the Angels) The Seventh Doctor's companion Ace was disheartened and frustrated when she contemplated the survival of fascism beyond the Second World War despite the defeat of the Nazis, even though she believed the war should have been the war to crush the ideology. She cited the murder of her friend Manisha Purkayastha at the hands of racists (TV: Ghost Light) as well as some of her own encounters with fascists and neo-Nazis (TV: Remembrance of the Daleks, Silver Nemesis) as regrettable evidence of its survival. (PROSE: Illegal Alien)
Tommy Connolly remarked how his dad, Eddie Connolly, fought against fascism during World War II while serving in the British Army so people could "say what they want and do what they want". (TV: The Idiot's Lantern)