Escapology was the technique of extrication from confinement.
Generations of renegade Time Lords discovered that escapology was the most important skill in the universe. During the War in Heaven, the War Cardinals taught the basics of escapology to Time Lord operatives in training centres on Gallifrey XII. (PROSE: Alien Bodies)
The Twelfth Doctor said he taught Harry Houdini everything he knew. (COMIC: The Swords of Kali) On other occasions, the Doctor gave credit to Houdini for their escapology know-how. (PROSE: The Sorcerer's Apprentice, TV: Planet of the Spiders, Revenge of the Cybermen, AUDIO: 1001 Nights, COMIC: Voyager, COMIC: Façades, PROSE: Cat's Cradle: Time's Crucible, Independence Day, Frontier Worlds, TV: Dreamland, GAME: Shadows of the Vashta Nerada, TV: The Witchfinders) The Third Doctor specifically said Houdini taught him everything he knew. (PROSE: Independence Day)