An escape pod was a capsule or craft used to escape a vessel in an emergency.
Davros survived the destruction of his mothership in an escape pod. (TV: Remembrance of the Daleks, PROSE: War of the Daleks, AUDIO: Terror Firma, Daleks Among Us) Davros also escaped Prison Station using an escape pod. (TV: Revelation of the Daleks)
Martha Jones and Riley Vashtee tried to get away from a Torajii-possessed Dev Ashton by locking themselves in an escape pod. The Tenth Doctor was able to bring them back by boosting the SS Pentallian's magnetic lock. (TV: 42)
The First Doctor and the Chief Voord escaped the destruction of a Voord spaceship in an escape capsule, which they landed in a South American jungle, with the Daleks following after them. (PROSE: Doctor Who and the Daleks)
While suggesting methods to get past the 'possessed' UNIT forces, Bill Potts proposed using an escape pod only for the Tenth Doctor to inform her that the TARDIS had none. The Twelfth Doctor improvised and subsequently jettisoned the TARDIS' art gallery with both his selves and Jenny inside. (COMIC: The Lost Dimension)