The eldest son of King Charles I, who had been executed by the Roundheads on 30 January 1649, Charles became the king in 1660 after Parliament invited him to take the throne of England. (PROSE: The Roundheads)
The Fourth Doctor told Sarah Jane Smith that he met Charles II before he became king. At the time, he was on the run from the Roundheads and the Doctor helped him to hide in an old oak tree. (PROSE: The Republican's Story)
During Charles II's life, there was an English Civil War: the Royalists against the Roundheads. (AUDIO: The Spectre of Lanyon Moor, TV: Silver Nemesis) Charles commemorated Sir Archibald Flint's ancestors' support during the war by gifting them Pengriffen Manor, originally designed by Sir John Arundell. This house remained in the family into the 21st century. (AUDIO: The Spectre of Lanyon Moor)
Charles, himself a Protestant, blamed the English Catholics for the Great Fire of London on 2 September 1666. (AUDIO: The Glorious Revolution) In actuality, it was started when a Terileptil weapon overloaded in a building on Pudding Lane. The Fifth Doctor played a major role in causing the fire. (TV: The Visitation)
The Eleventh Doctor also met Charles II, though against his will. He was being painted naked by Matilda and attempted to flee the king, but was apprehended. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London on the King's personal order, but escaped with a "magical sphere." (TV: The Impossible Astronaut)
Behind the scenes
He was portrayed by Simon Callow in England, My England, Michael Maloney in Children of the New Forest and Julian Wadham in Wren: The Man Who Built Britain. He appears in the board game The Universe Marathon.