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British monarchy

The United Kingdom operated under a constitutional monarchy.

The Doctor and the monarchy[]

The Doctor had numerous encounters with the Kings and Queens of Britain. So much so that Elizabeth X grew up on stories of the Doctor in the 29th century. (TV: The Beast Below)

The Doctor's relationships with the monarchs varied. The Tenth Doctor, after marrying Elizabeth I, (TV: The End of Time, The Day of the Doctor) infuriated her to the point that the next time she saw him, she ordered his execution. (TV: The Shakespeare Code) Queen Victoria both knighted and exiled him on the same day. (TV: Tooth and Claw) However, the Doctor also had good relationships with monarchs, such as Elizabeth II. (TV: Voyage of the Damned, Planet of the Dead)


Early history[]

According the one account, an incarnation of the Doctor pulled the sword from the stone and handed it to King Arthur. Therefore, the former was made King of England but he abdicated after a single day in Arthur's favour. (PROSE: Silhouette) Other sources dispute whether Arthur was real or just a legend. (TV: Battlefield)

In the 8th century, the kingdoms of England were not unified into one body. One such kingdom was Mercia. Egfrith was crowned King of Mercia in 785. (PROSE: The Dying Days)

In the 9th century, Alfred the Great was the King of all England. Many incarnations of the Doctor met him. (PROSE: Revenge of the Judoon, The Man Who Wouldn't Give Up) Alfred had some children. (COMIC: They Think It's All Over)

Athelstan of England was the King of England for some time in the 10th century. He received the Cup of Athelstan in 924 as a coronation gift from Hywel, King of the Welsh. (TV: Planet of the Dead)

11th century[]

Ethelred was King of the English in the early 11th century. He died in 1016. (PROSE: The Immortals)

At some point in the 11th century, the throne passed to the Danes. Cnut, the ruler of Denmark and uncle of future King Harold Godwinson, (PROSE: The Real Hereward) also reigned as King of England for a time. (AUDIO: Invaders from Mars)

Edward the Confessor was King of England from at least 1055 to the beginning of 1066. He had no children. He and his wife, Edith, had promised the throne to "everyone who wanted it", leading to peace during their reign and conflict after. (AUDIO: Seasons of Fear)

Harold Godwinson was crowned as the successor of Edward for some of 1066. The other claimants to the throne were Harald Hardrada and William of Normandy. In the Norman Conquest, Harold defeated Harald at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September. On 14 October, Harold and William clashed in the Battle of Hastings. During the battle, Harold was killed and William took over as King. (TV: Co-Owner of a Lonely Heart) The Monk tried to aid the Saxon army with advanced technology but was defeated by the First Doctor. (TV: The Time Meddler)

William was crowned on 25 December that year, (TV: Co-Owner of a Lonely Heart) and reigned until his death in 1087. (PROSE: Vampire Science)

12th century[]

Richard I of England, called Richard the Lionheart, was King of England during the Crusades in the late 12th century. While he led his troops in the crusades, he worried that his younger brother John of England would usurp his throne back in England. Richard assisted the First Doctor and Ian Chesterton in rescuing Barbara Wright after her capture by Arabs. (TV: The Crusade) Whilst he was in the Holy Land, John ruled England in his stead. (TV: Invasion of the Dinosaurs)

In 1199, Richard died and John became King in his own right. (PROSE: A History of Humankind)

13th century[]

While the real King John was in London taking the Crusader's Oath, the android Kamelion was being used in a plot by the Master to sabotage Earth history by preventing King John's signing of the Magna Carta, an event pivotal to the development of parliamentary democracy on that planet. This plot was foiled by the intervention of the Fifth Doctor. John ruled until at least 1215 (TV: The King's Demons) and was succeeded by his son, Henry III. (PROSE: The King's Demons)

14th century[]

In the late 14th century from at least the 1390s, Richard II was King. In 1399, he was deposed by a group of rebels led by Henry of Bolingbroke. Henry seized the throne, becoming Henry IV and Richard died in 1400 after having been imprisoned and denied food. Henry had a son that was born in 1386. (AUDIO: The Doctor's Tale)

15th century[]

Edward IV was the King into the 15th century and reigned during the War of the Roses. He was the husband of Elizabeth Woodville and brother of the future Richard III. He was also the father of the Princes in the Tower. After Edward's unexpected death, Edward V (one of the Princes in the Tower) was briefly king but Richard prevented him from being crowned. Richard then had Edward IV's marriage to Elizabeth declared illegitimate, as such so was Edward V. As next in line, Richard then claimed the throne for himself.

One source suggested that the Princes in the Tower were actually Edward IV's daughters, Susan and Judith. (AUDIO: The Kingmaker)

Richard ruled England for two years before being succeeded by Henry Tudor after his defeat in the Battle of Bosworth in 1485. One source suggested that it was actually William Shakespeare that was killed in the battle and Richard replaced him in the 16th century. (AUDIO: The Kingmaker, PROSE: Sometime Never...)

16th century[]

Henry Tudor (Henry VII) was the King of England until his death in 1509. (PROSE: Sometime Never...) He married Elizabeth of York (daughter of Edward IV) to unite the warring Yorks and Tudors. They had four children: the future Henry VIII, Arthur Tudor, Margaret Tudor and Mary Tudor. (TV: The Coach with the Dragon Tattoo)

Henry was succeeded by his son Henry VIII. He reigned from 1509 to 1547. He had six wives and three children, all of whom succeeded him as monarchs. (TV: The Coach with the Dragon Tattoo)

Henry's immediate successor was Edward VI who was a Protestant (AUDIO: The Marian Conspiracy) and reigned from 1547 to his death in 1553 at age 15. (TV: The Coach with the Dragon Tattoo)

After the death of Edward VI, Jane Grey became queen at sixteen years as her father wished, although she never wanted to rule. She ruled for nine days from 10 to 19 July. On 19 July, she met Rani Chandra, a traveller from 2010, on the ninth and final day of her reign. (TV: Lost in Time)

Mary I had claimed the throne and proclaimed her a traitor, intending to sentence her to death. (TV: Lost in Time) Mary ruled from 1553 to her death in 1558. Her husband was Philip II of Spain, though they had no children. (AUDIO: The Marian Conspiracy)

Elizabeth I was the Queen of England from 1558 to 1603 (TV: The Coach with the Dragon Tattoo) and a spouse of the Tenth Doctor. (TV: The End of Time, The Day of the Doctor) After the Doctor never returned to her, she met a younger version of his tenth incarnation following the premiere of Love's Labour's Won in 1599, and ordered his execution. (TV: The Shakespeare Code)

17th century[]

After the death of Elizabeth I, the Scottish King James I inherited the English throne. From then onwards, both kingdoms were ruled by a single monarch. (GAME: The Gunpowder Plot)

According to Barbara Wright, James' rule was characterised by relative religious tolerance. Though a staunch Protestant, he discouraged persecution of Catholics. Barbara claimed that he realised that "to govern well it made sense to unify people rather than drive them apart." (PROSE: The Plotters)

In spite of this, on 5 November 1605, Guy Fawkes and others attempted to blow up the Houses of Parliament and kill James I as part of a Catholic conspiracy which became known as the Gunpowder Plot. Their efforts were unsuccessful. Both the First and Eleventh Doctors were involved in these events. (PROSE: The Plotters, GAME: The Gunpowder Plot)

James' rule ended upon his death in 1625. (PROSE: The Roundheads)

James was succeeded by his son Charles I, who reigned during the English Civil War. The war was fought between his supporters, the Cavaliers, and the Roundheads. The Roundheads emerged victorious and he was executed on the orders of Oliver Cromwell on 30 January 1649.

After this, the monarchy was abolished and Cromwell served in the position of Lord Protector until his death in 1658. He banned Christmas. After his death, his son, Richard Cromwell became Lord Protector for only a few months. His rule was not very popular and earned him the nickname of "Tumbledown Dick".

In 1660, the son of Charles, Charles II became king after Parliament invited him to take the throne. (PROSE: The Roundheads)

Charles II, himself a Protestant, blamed the English Catholics for the Great Fire of London on 2 September 1666. (AUDIO: The Glorious Revolution) In actuality, it was started when a Terileptil weapon overloaded in a building on Pudding Lane. The Fifth Doctor played a major role in causing the fire. (TV: The Visitation)

The Fourth Doctor told Sarah Jane Smith that he met Charles II before he became king. At the time, he was on the run from the Roundheads and the Doctor helped him to hide in an old oak tree. (PROSE: The Republican's Story)

Upon his death in 1685, he was succeeded by his Catholic younger brother James II. In November 1688, his reign was brought to an end by the Glorious Revolution when he was overthrown by William of Orange. Its less immediate consequences included the Jacobite Risings which culminated in the Battle of Culloden on 16 April 1746. William ruled jointly with his wife, Mary II, who was also the daughter of James II. (AUDIO: The Glorious Revolution)

18th century[]

William of Orange died on 8 March 1702 — at least according to a newspaper that the Fifth Doctor and Turlough read. His death caused ordinary English subjects to toast the health of the heir-apparent, Princess Anne. (AUDIO: Phantasmagoria) She ruled until 1714. (AUDIO: Doctor Who and the Pirates)

King George I of England was from Hanover, Germany. The Second Doctor took up his German guise and said he spoke better English than the King. (TV: The Highlanders)

George II was King of England in 1746. The Redcoats fought for him. (TV: The Highlanders) During the Jacobite Rising of 1745, the Glaswegians fought on side of King George II and the English. (PROSE: The Wheel of Ice)

George III was the King of the United Kingdom from 1760 to 1820. In 1774, he received the last mammoth in Europe as a gift from Catherine II of Russia. (PROSE: The Adventuress of Henrietta Street, COMIC: Political Animals)

19th century[]

Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, Defender of the Faith, usually known as Queen Victoria, was a powerful and influential monarch on Earth in the 19th century. Victoria met the Doctor at least twice: once during her coronation in 1838, (TV: The Curse of Peladon) and in 1879 she shared an adventure with the Tenth Doctor. The latter encounter led her to banish the Doctor from her country and form the Torchwood Institute, as the British Empire's defence against the dark forces with which the Doctor seemed to consort. (TV: Tooth and Claw)

20th century[]

Edward VII succeeded his mother, Victoria and was king by 1902. He was succeeded by his son, George V. (PROSE: Revenge of the Judoon)

George V died in 1936 and was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward VIII. Edward VIII was King of the United Kingdom for most of 1936. He chose to abdicate on 10 December before marrying the twice-divorced American Wallis Simpson. Afterwards, his younger brother, George VI was his successor. George VI was king from 1936 to 1952 and was the monarch during World War II. He was succeeded by his daughter. (PROSE: Players)

Elizabeth II was crowned on 2 June 1953, (TV: The Idiot's Lantern) and served well into the 21st century. (TV: Voyage of the Damned)

The alien Wire attempted to take the energy from the millions of humans watching her 1953 Coronation on their televisions. However, the Tenth Doctor foiled the Wire's plans. (TV: The Idiot's Lantern)

Students at Brendon Public School (as well as the rest of Great Britain), where the Brigadier taught, celebrated the silver anniversary of Elizabeth II's coronation in 1977. (TV: Mawdryn Undead)

In 1988, her path almost crossed that of the Seventh Doctor (who almost but not quite recognised her) at Windsor Castle as she walked her pet corgis about the grounds. (TV: Silver Nemesis)

Elizabeth II was concurrently the Queen of Australia, a situation with which not all Australians were satisfied. The Fourth and Fifth Doctor's companion Tegan Jovanka, who described herself as "downright Bolshie," favoured her country's transition from a constitutional monarchy to a republic. (AUDIO: The Children of Seth)

21st century[]

On Christmas Day 2006, the blood control powers of the Sycorax (operating out of a ship hovering over London) threatened to make Elizabeth II, as well as the rest of the British Royal Family, jump off a roof and kill themselves. (TV: The Christmas Invasion)

Due to the Sycorax invasion and the "Christmas Star" incident occurring on consecutive Christmases in London, most of the city's residents fled during Christmas 2008. The Queen staunchly decided to remain in Buckingham Palace. On Christmas Day, the alien Titanic almost crashed into Buckingham Palace; the Tenth Doctor telephoned the Palace and spoke a pre-arranged code number that resulted in the immediate evacuation of the Queen and her staff, but at the last moment he was able to pull the ship up above the palace. The Queen thanked the Doctor by name. (TV: Voyage of the Damned)

In Easter 2009, the Tenth Doctor left his TARDIS in Buckingham Palace gardens, telling Captain Erisa Magambo that the Queen did not mind. (TV: Planet of the Dead)

Various accounts have Britain ruled by a king in 1997, (TV: Battlefield) the 2000s, (AUDIO: The Longest Night) and July 2012. (PROSE: The Shadows of Avalon) Whatever the date, Queen Elizabeth was eventually succeeded by Charles III, along with his Queen, Camilla. Charles himself was succeeded by William V. (PROSE: Revenge of the Judoon)

In 2050, when the British government was controlled by Lomax, a Korven from the far future, Britain was ruled by a King. An Oroborus arrived on Earth around his birthday, causing time distortions which meant that some people complained about missing the King's birthday message, and others saw it twice. (TV: Oroborus)

Henry XII was the king sometime prior to the 29th century. The Doctor was a "drinking buddy" of his. (TV: The Beast Below)

22nd century[]

In 2161, during the Dalek occupation, the last monarch of Britain died. In 2199, Lord Haldoran planned to become the first monarch of Britain in thirty-eight years. (PROSE: Legacy of the Daleks)

52nd century[]

In 5145, Elizabeth X caught River Song attempting to steal Vincent van Gogh's painting, The Pandorica Opens. After holding River at gunpoint, she saw the painting and learned for whom it was meant before letting her go. (TV: The Pandorica Opens)

Far future[]

Elizabeth X of the United Kingdom, (also known as Liz Ten) was the Queen Regnant of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland during the time during which Earth was devastated by solar flares in the late 30th century. Having made herself immortal (or near-immortal), she lived for centuries (TV: The Beast Below) and lived until at least the 52nd century. (TV: The Pandorica Opens)

At some point, the British monarchy was deposed and the last monarch was executed. Footage of that event could be viewed through the Gogglebox located on the Moon. (AUDIO: The Reaping)

Alternate timelines[]

In an alternate timeline accidentally created by Jamie McCrimmon, the Glorious Revolution was a failure and James II retained the throne until his death. Consequently, the Jacobite Risings and the Battle of Culloden never took place. James II's grandson, Charles Edward Stuart, better known as Bonnie Prince Charlie, eventually ascended the throne as King Charles III. He was still the reigning monarch in 1788. (AUDIO: The Glorious Revolution)

In an alternate timeline in which Germany won World War II, Edward VIII was restored to the throne with Wallis as his Queen in 1940. He signed a treaty which established Great Britain as a protectorate of the German Reich. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus)

Parallel universes[]

In a parallel universe, the Royal Family were executed in 1943. (TV: Inferno) It is implied they were implicated in the 1936 assassination of Oswald Mosley. (PROSE: I, Alastair)

Edward IX was King of England in a more technologically advanced parallel universe. (COMIC: Who's Who?)

In a parallel world, the starship Titanic did hit Buckingham Palace and caused a nuclear explosion. (TV: Turn Left)

In Arthur's World, a parallel universe, Arthur was King of England in the 8th century. (TV: Battlefield)

Behind the scenes[]

Torchwood website[]

On the series 1 version of the Torchwood website, a case file outlined the fall of Torchwood One. It suggested after a massive loss in life and technology, that it was recommended to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II for "the immediate closure of Torchwood One, together with the formation of a steering committee to fully examine future options." [1]


  1. Report: Closure of Torchwood One. Torchwood website. Archived from the original on 26 August 2007. Retrieved on 25 July 2013.