Bowie Base One was an international base founded on Mars in July 2058. It was built into the Gusev Crater as a research base with a Bio-Dome. The base's shuttle was Apollo 34. The base and shuttle were later compromised by an infectious alien species, as were some of the crew, leading to the base's destruction to prevent the aliens from taking over any more people.
The base had a crew of nine humans: Captain Adelaide Brooke, Deputy Ed Gold, Tarak Ital MD, Nurse Yuri Kerenski, Senior Technician Steffi Ehrlich, Junior Technician Roman Groom, geologist Mia Bennett, Margaret Cain, and Andy Stone. The mission was intended to take five years, studying Mars to see if it was suitable for human habitation. According to the Tenth Doctor, the colonists were the "very first humans on Mars", although an obituary of Adelaide claimed a three-person team including Brooke landed on Mars when Adelaide was 42, in 2041.
The mission included the United Kingdom, United States of America, Russia, Germany, Turkey, South Korea, Lithuania, and Australia. The flags of all of these countries (Lithuania's upside-down) but Pakistan were seen on the wall of the control hub. (Pakistan's flag was not shown, but the base doctor was a Pakistani national.) Mission Control was based in Houston, Texas.
Seventeen months into the mission, on 21 November 2059, The Flood reached the base thanks to a broken filter. It started infecting the crew through Andy Stone when Andy ate a carrot he had washed in the infected water. Ultimately, Captain Adelaide Brooke initiated Action Five, destroying the base, its personnel and the Flood in the resulting nuclear blast in order to save Earth. Many on Earth mourned their deaths, not knowing why Adelaide decided to take such drastic action. However, this inspired her granddaughter, Susie Fontana Brooke to follow in her grandmother's footsteps and lead humanity out among the stars.
With few facts available, it was speculated by the media that Adelaide Brooke had a psychotic episode which led to the destruction of the base, perhaps an effect of the realisation of being so far away from Earth. It was reported that a three-minute silence was held at midday on 23 November 2059. (TV: The Waters of Mars)
Seventeen months into the mission, on 21 November 2059, the Tenth Doctor arrived on Mars and was apprehended for trespassing by Gadget. Though initially excited to meet the crew of Bowie Base One, the Doctor realised that he had to leave after learning of the date as the events that would follow were a fixed point in time. However, while the Doctor was on the base, Andy was infected by The Flood due to a broken filter while eating a carrot in the Bio Dome. Despite his reluctance, the Doctor got caught up in the subsequent investigation and battle with the Flood, but refused to interfere too much due to the fixed nature of the moment.
Following the base's shuttle's destruction, the Doctor declared himself the Time Lord Victorious and attempted to save the surviving crew members. With Gadget's help, the Doctor transported Mia, Yuri and Adelaide back to Earth in the TARDIS. The Doctor had warned Adelaide how history was meant to play out, and she initiated Action Five just before they left. This detonated a nuclear device under Bowie Base One, destroying it, the infected crewmembers and the Flood.
Following her return to Earth, Adelaide defied the Doctor's supposed right to change history as the sole surviving Time Lord by committing suicide to keep the timeline on track. Mia and Yuri eventually spread the story of Bowie Base One and Adelaide's heroism, inspiring Adelaide's granddaughter to lead humanity into the stars. (TV: The Waters of Mars)