Charles Edward Stuart, also known as Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Young Pretender, was the grandson of the former King James II of England and James VII of Scotland, who had been overthrown in the Glorious Revolution in November 1688, and Mary of Modena. His father was James Stuart, who was known as the Old Pretender. (AUDIO: The Glorious Revolution) He was known as "the Boy Prince". (AUDIO: The Mouthless Dead)
Decades later, Bonnie Prince Charlie attempted to reclaim the English and Scottish thrones for his family in the Jacobite Rising of 1745 which came to an end with the Jacobite defeat at the Battle of Culloden on 16 April 1746. Jamie McCrimmon witnessed the Prince fleeing from the site of the battle not long after it had ended. (TV: The Highlanders) He was dressed as a washerwoman as he fled. (AUDIO: Night's Black Agents)
The Prince gave Colin McLaren his standard to protect. The Second Doctor discovered this and appropriated it from the Laird in order to convince Solicitor Grey that he was aware of the Prince's location and that they could split the reward money for his capture. The Doctor later claimed that Jamie was in fact the Prince in order to once again trick Grey. (TV: The Highlanders)
Charles Stuart fled to the Hebrides, pursued by the British who put a reward of £30,000 (by the 21st century an approximate sum of £15 million) on his head. He eventually managed to escape to France and never stepped foot in Scotland again. (PROSE: A History of Humankind)
In an alternative timeline accidentally created by Jamie in 1688, the Glorious Revolution was a failure and James II remained on the throne until his death. Consequently, the Jacobite Risings and the Battle of Culloden never took place. His grandson Bonnie Prince Charlie eventually ascended the throne as King Charles III. He was still the reigning monarch in 1788. (AUDIO: The Glorious Revolution)
Behind the scenes
In reality, Bonnie Prince Charlie died on 31 January 1788.