Bernard Lodge was credited with designing the first five title sequences used for Doctor Who. These were the ones used from An Unearthly Child to The Moonbase; from The Macra Terror to The War Games; from Spearhead from Space to The Green Death; from The Time Warrior to Planet of the Spiders; and from Robot to The Horns of Nimon.
Norman Taylor has alleged that, at least insofar as the monochromatic titles were concerned, "all [Lodge] did was to produce one white on black caption". A paper trail[additional sources needed] would seem to exist in the BBC's archives which indicates Taylor was the principal discoverer of the "howl-round effect" seen in 1960s and early 1970s Doctor Who titles.
According to Lodge in an interview in 2013, the "howlaroud" effect was in existence at the time, with Verity Lambert asking him to "have a look at it" (for Doctor Who) and that it might be incorporated into the opening titles. Upon seeing the film of the howaround at Ealing Studios for the first time he described what he saw as
These shapes; magic, just magic.
Lodge created the titles and the symmetrical Doctor Who logo lettering, creating the titles and adding a pen torch light to create more patterns whilst filming the sequence. Lodge went on to also create the titles for Patrick Troughton's stories beginning with The Macra Terror adding in Troughton's face to the title sequence having been discouraged by Lambert during Hartnell's era (as being too scary). The new sequence with Troughton's face was achieved with "a combination of the howlaround and a crumpled piece of polythene to break up the face as the light passed across it. We were very inventive in those days, always messing around and experimenting.".