Atheism was the lack of belief in the existence of a god or gods.
The Ninth Doctor spoke disparagingly of humanity's willingness to "believe in something invisible". (TV: Aliens of London) Regardless, the Tenth Doctor's perceptions about religion were altered upon meeting the Beast, an entity that claimed itself to be Satan. (TV: The Satan Pit)
Other Time Lords
Susan once said that religious education at Coal Hill School was just "history with more blatant fibs", and was much more knowledgeable about gods from outer space than those made up to make people feel better. (PROSE: Time and Relative)
Erimem once stated that she did not believe in the Egyptian gods, (AUDIO: The Eye of the Scorpion) though she later called upon Osiris when the Fifth Doctor was in need of healing. (AUDIO: The Bride of Peladon) Sarah Jane Smith was an atheist. (AUDIO: Dreamland)
While drinking in a beer tent on the planet Crex, Bernice Summerfield asserted "There is not a God!" (PROSE: Human Nature) Though she was an atheist, she did believe in an afterlife, but she found her seemingly-conflicting belief odd. (PROSE: Falls the Shadow)
The people of Elbyon were unable to conceive of gods or an afterlife because to do so would have been extremely dangerous in the presence of the planet's "magic" technology. (PROSE: The Sorcerer's Apprentice)