During Earth's forays onto Mars, the Clean Earth Act of 2350 was enacted. It led to the Ares Corporation terraforming the red planet. In less then a decade, real canals began to appear on the world. In time, opposition to the corporation's rule came from an activist group known as Redpeace, who campaigned for the planet to be returned to its natives, the Ice Warriors. To combat this threat, the corporation was responsible for genetically engineering a being to serve as its chair person whom they offered as a "true" Martian predating the Ice Warriors. In addition to this being, known as the Last Martian, they created a militant front known as Crimson Dawn.
In the 25th century, the Fourth Doctor arrived on Mars with Leela and K9 when the terraformed environment suffered from a genetically constructed "red bloom". The Doctor later uncovered the plot of the Ares Corporation, allowing for it to be toppled, whereupon he awakened the sleeping Ice Warriors on Phobos. (PROSE: Crimson Dawn)